Archaeological, Astronomical, Historical Evidence of Ramayana

“Divinity is Matter of Faith, While Historicity is Matter of Existence”.

Ramayana and Mahabharata are the Greatest Ancient Indian Epics written in one of world’s Ancient and Mystic Language Sanskrit.

▪ Ramayana is Life story of King Sri Ram whom Hindus considered as 7th incarnation of Sri Maha Vishnu, and Epic Ramayana is written by Indian Ancient Sage Valmiki.

Ramayana is Describing Events which has happened 7000 years ago and Mahabharata is describing events which has happened 5000 years ago.

Unlike Mahabharata (which has Marine Archaeological Proof), Ramayana has no major Archeological Evidence hence it is little bit Difficult to prove its Historicity, Mainly because of Civilization.

▪ In Continuous Civilization, As Generations comes and go, they keep building and Rebuilding their Cities, they alter and destroy the Evidences of Previous Generation.

▪ Just Look at Your city now and Compare it with 30 years old photo, Unbelievable Right? Just 30 years old photo of your city is Unbelievable to you the What about the History which is 7000 Years old?

Stories of Ramayana is passed from Generation to Generation, So there are more chances of adding Some non Historical stories to the Historical One.

▪ So Let we Analyse Ramayana based on Modern Scientific Methods to Decode its Historicity.

How do you term an event historical?

When an established textual description of an event is corroborated with
▪ The geography of the land
▪ Archeological evidences
▪ Repeated historical references and a date can be attributed to it scientifically, it becomes history.

Techniques which are Used

▪ Understanding Terminology
▪ Modern Astronomical Techniques
▪ Archeo-Astronomical Techniques using Planetarium software.
▪ Analyzing Historical Records.
▪ Analyzing Geographical Records.
▪ Astronomical Skycharts using modern scientific tools
▪ Geological surveys and research
▪ Archeological Research
▪ Historical notes of travellers through India right from 1032 CE
▪ Published Government Gazettes
▪ Historical records of the British.


Evidence No:-1 Understanding the History of Terminologies ‘Mythology’ and ‘Epic’

1. What is Mythology?

▪ The word mythology or myth has its etymological roots from the Indian Sanskrit word ‘mithia’. Mithia in sanskrit means ‘untrue’.

▪ Any text that has been termed as mythological by classification means that contents mentioned therein are untrue.

2. What is Meaning of term “ Epic”?

▪ The word Epic Means History (itihasa), Refers to the Events which have actually Happened Historically.

3. What is BCE and CE?

BCE is Before Common Era and CE is Common Era.
▪ This is akin to BC and AD, the norms used earlier.
▪ Scientific historians world over have started using this new nomenclature BCE and CE instead of BC (Before Christ) and AD (Anno Domini), as they did not want to base the dating of world events on an individual (Jesus Christ) whose dates are now being questioned for their historicity.
▪ Hence this new scientific and universally acceptable nomenclature of BCE and CE.
BCE- Before Common Era
CE- Common Era.
▪ There is No link to Any Individual (Jesus Christ) in BCE and CE.

4. How did Indian Texts get termed as 'Mythology'?

▪ In 1813, Mr.James Mill & Mr. Charles Grant from Helebary College, wrote History of India and classified most of the literature of India as Mythological.

Mr.Mill & Mr. Grant classified these texts as Mythological on the following 4 grounds:

1. The events in these texts seemed to go before the Date of creation of the earth as fixed by Father. James Usher as 9 AM, 23rd Oct, 4004 BCE.(Because According to Bible Earth is created 6000 years ago).
▪ If Earth is Created 6000 Years ago, How come Ramayana can happen 7000 years ago?.
▪ But Science has Now Proved that Earth is not 6000 years old, But it is Billions of Years old.
2. Early British Scholars Believed in Fake Aryan Invasion Theory

▪ Early British Scholars like Max-Muller, Martin-Luther King, Griffith etc Proposed Aryan Invasion Theory Stating that

The Aryan Invasion Theory Defined

• Vedic Aryans entered India between 1,500 and 1,200 B.C.

• They conquered the native Dravidian culture by virtue of their superiority due to their horses & iron weapons

• They Imported the Vedic culture and it's literatures.

• This Aryan Invasion Theory, however, deprives the inhabitants of India of their Vedic heritage. The wealth of their culture came from foreign soil.

▪ However New Archeological Findings around Dried bed of River Saraswati and Carbon, Thermoluminescence Dating of archaeological artifacts Proved that Aryan Invasion Theory is Fake
You can find Entire Archeological Evidence in the given link below.
3. British texts contains Genealogies (Bible Genealogy- Adam,Eve,Cain…..Abraham….Moses etc) which they thought it was Historical were incompatible with Indian Texts, That's why they Considered Indian Texts as Mythology, But the Truth was their Genealogy was wrong.

4. It was held by the colonial British that Alexander defeated Porus in 326 BCE and spread culture and civilized thought to India and that until then Indians were uncivilized barbarians.

▪ So the civilization described in these Indian texts seemed to be more advanced in science, technology, culture, philosophy and linguistics could not have existed prior to the arrival of Alexander and hence the texts are mythical.

▪ But the Truth is Existence of a civilized India prior to the arrival of Alexander has been proved beyond any doubt, The defeat of Porus in the hands of Alexander is also now being questioned with the uncovering of various pre biblical texts and piecing together various circumstantial evidences which point to the contrary namely, Alexander being wounded and defeated by Porus . Hence this premise of Mr.Mill & Mr. Grant is also flawed.

Final Conclusion
▪ It was not the problem with Indian texts but it was problem with their underlying Assumption (Earth is Created on 4004 BCE, Aryans invaded India around 1500 BCE, False Genealogy of Adam,Eve,....Abraham,.....Moses etc) which leads to the word Mythology to Indian Texts.

▪ Even Today Ramayana and Mahabharata is Classified as Epics (Two Great Indian Epics) and not as Mythology.

Evidence No 2:- Ramayana is geographically very correct

▪ Every site on Rama's route is still identifiable and has continuing traditions in the form of temples to commemorate Rama's visit.   
In those remote days no author had the travel facility to concoct a geographically credible story and build it into local folklore.   
▪ All the places visited by Rama still retain memories of his visit.
▪ Some places have commemorative temples, others commemorate Rama's visit in local folklore.

There is convergence in literature, archaeology and local tradition.

1. They went Ayodhya to Tamsa Nadi Tal (Mandah) – 20 km from Ayodhya
2. Then they reached Ganges and entered Shringverpur (Singraur) which was kingdom of Nishadraj
Guh and is famous for Kewat prasang (20 km from Allahabad)

3. After crossing Yamuna near Sangam they reached Chitrakoot on UP and MP borders -

Memorials include Valmiki Ashram, Mandavya Ashram, Bharat Koop etc still exist.

▪ After Bharat Milap they left Chitrakoot and went to Atri Ashram located in Satana in MP

4. Along with Laxman and Sita, Shri Rama extensively travelled through this land of
rivulets and water bodies and dense forests around MP and Chhatisgarh.

▪ They roamed around in Dandakaranya area and visited Sharbhang and Sutikshan Muni ashrams in Satna , Thereafter they visited several Rishi ashrams in MP and Chattisgarh areas, along Narmada and Mahanadi rivers for 10 years, and then came back to Sutikshan ashram.

Several memorials in Panna, Raipur, Bastar and Jagdalpur still exist which include Mandavya ashram, Shringi ashram, Ram Laxman Mandir etc.

▪ After crossing many rivers, lakes, hills and forests they went to Agastya ashram in Nasik. As per Valmiki, weapons made in Agni Shala were given to Shri Rama by Agastya Muni in this ashram.

▪ Shri Rama, Laxman and Sita travelled along Godavari. From Agastya ashram they
went to stay in Panchvati – a place with 5 Vata trees located on banks of Godavari
in Nasik .

▪ This place is famous for Shoorpanakha
episode and war with Khar and Dushan.

▪ There are memorials at the place where Mareech was stated as killed; these include Mrigvyadheshwar and Baneshwar. Infact, Nasik area is full of memorials,
e.g., Sita Sarovar, Ram Kund and Trimbakeshwar and Janasthan etc.

▪ After this incident, Sita was abducted by Ravana, who also killed Jatayu— memorial ‘Sarvatiratha’ in Taked Village, 56 km from Nashik, is still preserved.

5. Shri Rama and Laxman extensively travelled through these areas in search of Sita.
▪ After meeting Jatayu and Kabandha they moved towards south to reach Rishyamook Parbat.

On way they visited Shabari ashram in Pampa Sarovar area which is now known as Sureban in Belgaum and is still famous for Ber trees.

▪ After crossing forests of Sandalwood, many gardens and water bodies, they
went towards Rishyamook. Here they met Hanuman and Sugreev, and were shown
Sita’s ornaments. Shri Rama killed Vali in this area.

Rishyamook and Kishkindha are located in Hampi, Distt. Bellary of Karnataka.

6. Rama with sena marched towards the sea. After crossing Malay Parbat, Chandan forests, many rivers and ponds they went along Kaveri River. Details of travel narrated in Valmiki’s Ramayana tally with the existing memorials.

7. Ram-sena first camped in Kodikkarai but later moved to Rameshwaram for construction of bridge and there are many memorials to commemorate this event in Chhedukarai.

▪ After surveying the sea area the place was found unsuitable for constructing the bridge.

▪ Therefore, Shri Rama shifted the entire army to Rameshwaram. After surveying the place for three days, suitable area was identified and the bridge was constructed under the supervision of great shilpakar Nal.

In Rameshwaram, particularly from Dhanushkoti, the boatmen still take visitors in glass boats to show remains of Rama’s bridge, but it is considered fashionable to call it Adam’s bridge instead of calling it by its historical name i.e. Rama’s bridge.

Evidence No:-3 Tracing the Places Visited by Sri Ram


1. Ayodhya: Ayodhya is on the southern banks of the river Sarayu (currently known as Ghagra river), where Rama was born. It is now situated in the Lucknow-VAraNAsi rail route. When Rama decided to go to the forest acceding to the demands of Kaikeyi, Rama, Sita, and Lakshmana were driven by Sumantra (the prime minister of Dasharatha) in a chariot down south to the banks of the river Ganga. Sumantra was persuaded by Rama to return to Ayodhya and attend to the king. The northern bank of Ganga was the southern border of Kosala kingdom. Guha was the ruler of the NishAdha kingdom. He ferried the three to the southern bank of Ganga, at Rama’s request, in his boat.

2. PrayAg: After crossing the river Ganga, the trio reached (by foot) the holy confluence of Ganga and Yamuna at PrayAg (also known as trivENi sangamam). They arrived at the hermitage of sage BharadwAj, who counseled them to seek the area near the mountain of ChitrakUTa, about 10 leagues (1 league= 3 miles) from PrayAg, for a peaceful stay. They crossed the river Yamuna on a raft and walked for 2 days to reach ChitrakUTa.

3. ChitrakUTa: River MAyawati flows at the foothills of the mountain ChitrakUTa. Lakshmana built a modest hermitage on the banks of the river for them to reside. Life in the sylvan setting was peaceful. It is here that Bharata came from Ayodhya after learning 3 of the circumstances surrounding Rama’s life in exile. After failing to exhort Rama to return to Ayodhya he got Rama’s footwear to be placed on the throne while he would run a caretaker government for the next 14 years. The demons had an outpost at JanasthAna, not far from ChitrakUTa and they caused problems for the sages. The sages decided to leave that area and that decision encouraged Rama too to seek another place for his exile.

4. DaNDakAraNya: This is a vast swath of territory covering the region south of the Vindhya mountain range (covering portions of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh). Its geographical limits were Vindhya Mountains to the north, Krishna River in the south, and the mouth of GodAvari River in the east. It was named for a son of Iksvaku (ancestor of Rama) named Danda, who was banished there. The trio started moving deep into the forest and visited the hermitage of Atri and sought his blessings. The wife of Atri, AnasUya gave a gift of jewelry to Sita. It was this collection of jewelry that Sita used to drop in Kishkindha, on the way to Lanka, while Ravana carried her in the aerial car. There were many sages living in various parts of the forest. The trio kept moving from place to place, spending a month, a season, or a year at each hermitage. A period of 10 years rolled by peacefully during such transit. After visiting the sages Sarabhanga and SuteekshNa, they went to visit sage Agasthya who directed them to spend the rest of the exile in a place called panchavaTi, two yOjanAs down south (1 yOjanA = 9 miles) on the northern banks of the river GodAvari. 5. PanchavaTi: PanchavaTi means five (pancha) banyan (vaTa) trees. This is the place where Lakshmana built a bamboo cottage in a tranquil area for Rama and Sita to reside. At this site Surpanaka (Ravana’s sister) came to entice Rama failing which she got disfigured by Lakshmana. Her brothers, Kara and DhUshana, who came to her defense along with a bunch of other demons were defeated and killed by Rama and Lakshmana. The aftermath of this brought Ravana into the scene with a wicked plan to abduct Sita. The plan was for Ravana’s uncle Mareecha to assume the form of a golden deer to entice Sita, lure Rama in pursuit of it, and draw Lakshmana too away from the scene at which time Ravana would swoop in to carry Sita away.

6. Kishkindha: After Sita was carried away by Ravana, Rama and Lakshmana wandered all over and reached Kishkindha, a mountain range in the Tungabhadra river valley. The Vijayanagar Empire of the 14th-16th centuries covered this region. VAli, the older brother of Sugreeva, ruled this region when Rama and Lakshmana arrived there. Sugreeva, shunned by VAli as a result of a misunderstanding, took refuge in the mountain called Rishyamukha parvatham. This is said to be located near the PampA Lake in the Tungabhadra river valley. It is here that Rama was served by the pious lady Sabari who attained salvation (mOksham) after waiting for 12 years for Rama’s arrival and serving him delicious fruits when he came. This is also where Rama and Lakshmana struck friendship with Sugreeva & Hanuman who would aid them (after Rama killed Vali and anointed Sugreeva in the throne) with their monkey brigade to fight Ravana.

7. Rameswaram and DhanushkODi: After Hanuman located Sita in Lanka, Rama and Lakshmana, arrived at the southeastern tip of the land and Rama marked the place with his bow (dhanush) from where they would launch the expedition to Lanka by building a bridge (Rama sEtu) with rocks and trees, uprooted by the monkeys, to the northern tip of Lanka.

8. Ram Setu: The bridge to Lanka known as Rama setu was supposedly constructed by the vanara army from Dhanushkodi to the northern tip of Lanka over a region of shallow waters interrupted by sandy elevations known as shoals in the narrow straits between India and Sri Lanka.

▪ This stretch of limestone shoals between Rameswaram and the Mannar island in Sri Lanka was called Adam’s Bridge by the British.

▪ That name probably came from an Islamic legend which described the travel of Adam through that pathway to reach Sri Lanka to do penance on a peak now called Adam’s Peak.

▪ It is not difficult to visualize that such a makeshift bridge (much along the lines of the modern pontoon bridge) spanning a distance of 20 miles could be constructed with rocks and trees if the waters were shallow in that area.

▪ To add credence to such a structure NASA spacecraft Gemini-11 took some photographs from space of the said region which indicated the extensive stretch of sandy spots separated by water between the two lands. It is important to note that NASA did not conclude nor deny that it is a non-natural bridge. The satellite map only indicated the extended stretch of shoals. In addition, thousands of years ago (when Rama was supposed to have lived) the water gap between India and Lanka could have been a more sandy and a shorter span than it is now, facilitating the bridge work with the help of monkeys using rocks and trees. Marco Polo, the 13th century Venetian traveler described this area in his diaries as set around Rameswaram (bridge constructed at Rameswaram).

9. Lanka: Once Rama and Lakshmana crossed into Lanka with the vanara army, then a peace overture was initiated by Rama which failed. Thereupon war was declared. The actual duration of the war is not known but estimated to have lasted just 13 days from the start. The beautiful city of Lanka (supposedly built by Kubera) was destroyed. (It is likely that the old fortified city of Lanka was near the northern tip of the current island nation of Sri Lanka). Ravana and his associates (except for Vibhishana) were killed. At the end of the war Rama offered the throne of Lanka to Vibhishana and returned to Ayodhya in the aerial car of Ravana in time to take over the reign of the Kosala kingdom at the end of his 14-year exile.

Evidence No:-4 Established textual evidence of Rama?

Valmiki, the author of the original Ramayana text was a contemporary to Rama. This has been explicitly stated in the text itself. This story was not penned a few hundred years after the life of Rama. In fact, Valmiki was the guardian to the wife and sons of Rama.

▪ This one fact gives it the credibility of being an authentic historical account. If you look at various historical text world over we find the authors have written about stories which happened few hundred or even few thousand years prior to their times. In such historical texts, the authenticity and the exactness of the material can be questioned.

▪ Ramayana being a popular story of India, many authors down the timeline have written their own versions of Ramayana.

▪ Kalidasa, the great Samskrit poet of the 5th century CE wrote his Raghuvamsa, his poetry on Rama.

▪ The Tamil poet Kamban wrote his version of Kamba Ramayana over 1000 years back.   
▪ Goswami Tulasidas wrote Ram Charita Manas in the 17th century.
▪ These 3 and such other eminent authors across India have penned the story eulogising the Indian hero and attributing divinity to Rama.

These later day texts cannot be termed as being completely historical, because they are based on the information available at their times.

▪ In contrast to all this the Ramayana written by Valmiki can really be considered as authentic historical text which is why the text has been classified as Itihaasa, meaning ‘it thus happened’.

▪ The Puranic text of India also mention the details on the story of Rama. The stories mentioned in the Puranic texts and the original Ramayana of Valmiki cross validate each other in many a places. This adds further credibility to the Valmiki Ramayana text being rightly termed as Itihaasa – it thus happened – a historical text.

Evidence No:-5 Sky Charting or Archeo-Astronomy

▪ This is a technique of charting the future or past sky using a scientific tool. This tool helps to arrive at planetary positions given a date in future or past and vice-versa i.e. given a set of planetary configurations, arrive at the date either in future or in the past.
▪ Such tools are collectively called Planetarium software. There are probably over 50 such different software available. Each software can be used specifically for a particular application, like, plotting the current night sky chart, predicting eclipses and the likes.

▪ When spacecrafts are launched to visit far-off planets like Jupiter and Saturn, it would take a travel time of well over 12 years for the spacecraft to reach these planets. This software helps determine orbital positions of the planets when the spacecraft reaches their orbits. For this, a high level of precision is required in the software.

▪ Unlike any other civilization so far, the literature of the Indian civilization is characterised for being embedded with night sky observations. Feeding the observations of the planetary configurations into the Planetarium software gives us the English calendar dates when these configurations could have occurred in the past. When these dates are logically arranged along with the events, it helps us to scientifically assign dates to events mentioned in Indian legends and historical texts, and validate them.

▪ Thus the astronomical remains left behind in our literature can be analysed scientifically to arrive at historic dates for various events. This approach is parallel to archaeology where physical remains are analysed to arrive at historic dates and hence gives rise to a new branch of scientific dating which may be called Archaeo-astronomy.

▪ Various modern day researchers have made use of this software to arrive at such historic dates for various events described in the Indian literature. We have collated the outputs of such credible work which are worthy of standing up to cross validation.

▪ In the context of the Historicity of Rama, the works of Shri. Pushkar Bhatnagar, as brought out in the book "Dating the Era of Lord Ram" form the basis of what is presented here to understand the dates of the events in Rama’s lifetime.

1. Sri Ram Navami - Birthday

▪ Sri Rama Navami is the birthday of Rama.

▪ Rama was born on the Navami tithi of Shukla Paksha of Chaitra masa (9th day of the increasing phase of the moon in the lunar month of Chaitra).

▪ At that time, the nakshatra was Punarvasu, and Sun, Mars, Saturn, Jupiter and Venus were in Aries, Capricorn, Libra, Cancer and Pisces respectively. Lagna was Cancer and Jupiter & Moon were shining together. -- Ramayana 1.18.8,9   

The conditions can be summarised as follows:

1. Sun in Aries
2. Saturn in Libra
3. Jupiter in Cancer
4. Venus in Pisces
5. Mars in Capricorn
6. Lunar month of Chaitra
7. 9th day after New Moon
    (Navami Tithi, Shukla Paksh)
8. Moon near Punarvasu Nakshatra
     (Pollux star in Gemini constellation)
9. Cancer as Lagna
    (Cancer constellation rising in the east)
10. Jupiter above the horizon

Sky Chart
The observations made, when entered into Planetarium software gives us the above Sky Chart, which in turns gives forth the below mentioned date.
Sri Rama Navami - 10th January 5114 BCE - Birthday of Rama Observation at 12.30 p.m.

2. Birth of Bharatha

▪ The Sky Chart of Bharata's birth is depicted on the right.

▪ This is about 16 hours after birth of Rama.
Birth of Bharatha - 11th January 5114 BCE, 4.30 am

3.Pre coronation eve

King Dasaratha to his courtiers -

▪ "This month of Chaitra is beautiful and holy. The woods and trees are full of flowers. At this time coronation of Rama is most appropriate."
(Ramayana 2.4.21-22)

▪ "Astrologers have told me that my nakshatra has been surrounded by malefic planets like Sun, Mars and Rahu. Under such planetary configurations, the king either dies or falls in some deep conspiracy. Thus, before I face any such problem, you take over the kingship" .
(Ramayana 2.4.18).

▪ "Today the moon is on Punarvasu nakshatra and tomorrow it will meet the Pushya nakshatra. In that Pushya nakshatra, I am eager to hand over the kingdom to you."
(Ramayana 2.4.21-22).
Planets located together in Pisces constellation

4th January 5089 BCE

4.Khar, Dushan episode

Khar told Rama

"I want to say many things about my prowess but I would not, because if in the meanwhile sunset occurs, there would be a break in the battle."   
(Ramayana: 3.29.23)

Solar Eclipse description

1. Planets, visible to unaided eyes are East to West - Saturn, Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Venus, Jupiter.
2. Mars was in the middle of this chain.
3. Rarely, all the planets are in the day sky.
4. Rarer is Mars in the middle of them.
5. The occurrence of a solar eclipse at that time makes it absolutely unique.

▪ These are some of the rarest of the rare astronomical events, which got recorded because of their uniqueness.
Khar Rama Battle - Solar Eclipse   

The Solar eclipse on 7th October 5077 BCE reached maximum coverage for Panchwati at 15.10 hours. The Sky Chart on the left shows the configuration at 2.00 p.m. with the Latitude / Longitude for Panchwati

5.Vali Vadham

▪ "Hearing the roar of Sugreev, Vali face became red like the sun caught by Rahu during the eclipse" (Ramayana 4.15.3).

▪ "Vali Vadham" occurred on 3rd April 5076 BCE during the Solar Eclipse, in the Amavasya Ashada during the morning hours.   

6.Hanuman's Visit to Lanka

Hanuman's Visit to Lanka - 12th September 5076 BCE - Lunar Eclipse

▪ The eclipsed moon rose in the eastern sky. It was not a total lunar eclipse. The place of observation is Lanka

7.Hanuman's Return from Lanka

▪ Hanuman's Return from Lanka - 14th September 5076 BCE

▪ Observation at 6.30 a.m. The Sun and Moon are shining together. Mars & Jupiter are shining. Also seen Pushya Cancer Swati Virgo Airavat elephant of Indra corresponds to Scorpio.

8.Army march to Lanka

The Vanara Army march to Lanka - 20th September 5076 BCE

Lakshmana's observation : "The Venus has gone to the back side, Sapta-rishi (Ursa Major) are visible brightly, Trishanku (Crux) is visible in front. Moola nakshatra, protector of Rakshasa, is inflicted with Dhumra-ketu (node)."

9.Internal Consistency of all Dates

▪ It may be noted from the table above that the dates arrived at for the events are not haphazard.

▪ They tally with the chronological sequence for the events as found in the Ramayana text. Not only that the elapsed times between the events as indicated by these dates also tallies with the elapse-time and duration/age as described in the Ramayana text.

▪ This establishes internal consistency in these dates and proves the credibility of the technique.

10. Cross Validation of Dates

▪ Rama Navami occurs around the 21st of April, now in the month of Chaitra. During the days of Rama, i.e., in 5114 BCE, the Navami of Chaitra month has occurred on the 10th of January. Here we can observe a difference of 100 days between the occurrence of Navami in the Chaitra month between the years 5114 BCE and 2007 CE. How does one account for this difference?
a. Varahamihira's Brihat Samhita

▪ The Brihad Samhita compiled by Varahamihira  around 530 C.E states that the Retrograde Motion of the Vernal Equinox (Vasant Sampat) is 1° in 72 years - i.e. one day for every 72 years that is there is a slide of 1 day in every 72 years.

▪ Varahamihira also goes on to suggest that a correction factor be applied every 500 years to overcome this.

b. Precession of equinox

▪ Modern day astronomers have termed this slide as Precession of equinox and state that it is 1 day in every 72 years.

▪ Taking from Varahamihira as well as the modern concept of precession of equinox

Slide of 100 days at the rate of 72 years elapse for 1 day of slide gives 7200 years of elapse time

▪ The difference between 5114 BCE and 2007 CE is 7121 years which is very close to 7200 years.

c. Sea Level Rise

▪ A schematic representation of Sea Level Rise is depicted below.

d. What do our other traditional literature say about these dates?

▪ The above clearly brings forth the date of Rama being 5114 BCE and it tallies well with scientific explanations.

Evidence no 6:- Analyzing Historical Records

▪ Throughout history there have been repeated references to this bridge in various places and forms. These references point to the continuous historical references which provide credible inputs for the existence of the bridge and its usage through the ages.

a.The Family Tree of Rama

▪ The lineage of Rama, both before and after him has been extensively documented, and not only in the Ramayana. Other texts, such as the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata and many more also refer to the lineage of Rama. Given the extensive corroboration between and within these texts, the validity of this tree can be clearly verified by cross-referencing these texts.


▪ Krishna Raya
▪ Inscription dated Saka 1430 (1508 C.E)

Epigrapha Indica Volume 1 1892 Pg. 363 – 366
Verse - 8
Like another sun,
who always dwelt on earth,
he, who was continually rising,
who was surrounded by poets and wise men,
who never fled from war
and who was highly famed
from the eastern to the western ocean
and from Rama Setu to the golden mountain - Meru,killed the enemies, as the sun conquers,
the Mandehas, and shone, surpassing
the trees of heaven by his gifts.

Verse – 17
The streams of water - poured out,
at copious great gifts of various kinds,
which he performed at Gokarna, at Rama Setu,
and at all other sacred places in the world,
frustrated the eagerness of Indra,
the bearer of the thunderbolt,
who was ardently rising to
clip the wings of the mountains,
which were immersed in the ocean,
that was being dried up
by the dust of the hoofs
of the troops of his prancing horses.

Verse – 29
Seated on a jeweled throne at Vijayanagara,
King Krishnaraya, whose liberality was worthy
to be praised by the learned,
having surpassed Nriga and other Kings
in wisdom, and having bestowed abundant riches
on all suppliants on earth,
was resplendent with fame
from the eastern mountain of the west
and from the mountain of gold - Meru, to Rama Setu.


Sanskrit text in grantha script

ramie sriramatirthe kavivara nikaraih baddhasetu prabandhe kanyaatirthe jitaanaamadaritamapi dis'e mandane dakshinasyaah srirange caahis'alyaas'ayitamurabhidi s'yaamapoogaabhiraame hemnaaviryaancitena kshitipatikarot yastulaabhaarakarma

"This ruler performed tulabhara with gold acquired by his valour, at the beautiful Sri Rama Tirtha, where the ablest of vanara flocks built the bridge; at the Kanya Tirtha which subdued the southern quarters, and at Srirangam beautiful by the areca groves, where Sri Vishnu reclines on his serpent couch."


Alberuni describing Geography of India.

Next a great bay in which Single Dib lies,
i.e. the island Sarandib (Ceylon). On the coast is Ummalnara, then Ramsher (Rameshar?), opposite Sarandib; the distance of the sea between them is 12 farsakh. Between Ramsher and Setubandha 2 farsakh. Setu Bandha means bridge of the ocean. It is the dike of Rama, the son of Dasaratha which he built from the continent to the castle Lanka. At present it consists of isolated mountains between which the ocean flows.
Sixteen farsakh from Setubandha towards the east is Kihkind. The mountians of the vanara.

▪ C. W. Nicholas raises a vital question,
did the Pamban passage exist before 1549 ? Was it an artificial work ?. A straight rocky barrier, presenting a wall-like appearance on the northern side.
▪ Sandstone formations consisting of large masses of rock with a flat upper surface, now stretches for about 6,000 feet between the Indian mainland and Pamban island.

▪ Through a 200 feet gap in the great dam runs the Pamban passage. The rocky barrier is a natural and partly artificial causeway over low, sandstone based isthmus

Encyclopedia of Britannica

▪ Adam's Bridge also called Rama's Bridge, chain of shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. The bridge is 30 miles - 48 km, long and separates the Gulf of Mannar - southwest, from the Palk Strait - northeast. Some of the sandbanks are dry, and nowhere are the shoals deeper than 4 feet - 1 m.

▪ Geologic evidence suggests that Adam's Bridge represents a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka. Traditionally, it is said to be the remnant of a huge causeway constructed by Rama, the hero of the Hindu epic Ramayana to facilitate the passage of his army from India to Ceylon - Sri Lanka, for the rescue of his abducted wife, Sita. According to Muslim legend, Adam crossed there to Adam's peak, Ceylon, atop which he stood repentant on 1 foot for 1,000 years.

Nala Setu Bridge - a summary view, Travelogue references

▪ Al – Biruni- 1030 CE
▪ Marco Polo- 1271 CE
▪ Ludovico de Varthema- 1470 CE
▪ Asiatic Society- 1799 CE
▪ William Fordyce Mavor- 1807 CE
▪ Charles O'Conor- 1819 CE
▪ A J Valpy- 1825 CE
▪ Arnold Hermann- 1833 CE
▪ William Yates- 1846 CE
▪ Thomas Horsfield- 1851 CE
▪ George Scharf- 1856 CE
▪ Clements Robert Markham- 1862 CE

The above Historical Records goes to show that the bridge has been regularly mentioned by various travellers to this region over the past 1000 years.

▪ This goes to prove that there is a consistent record of the bridge and more importantly, the history of the origins of the bridge is also consistent with the notes of travellers to this area.

e. Maps

f. Government Gazette

▪ The then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, Dr. M. Karunanidhi, in his foreword to the Ramanathapuram District Gazette of 1972, has stated that the information given in the Gazette is authentic, reliable and has been compiled as an encyclopaedic reference material for researchers.

▪ The Gazette goes on to clearly speak of the 'Adam's Bridge' as 'Sethu Palam' and 'Rama Sethu' and calls it as 'thiruvanai' meaning Sacred Dam in Tamil. It also states that this is called the 'Ramar Palam' because it was built by the 'Kuranguppadai' or 'Vanara Sena' and it was in use till 1480 A.D., when it was washed away in a storm

▪ These statements in the Gazette clearly bring forth that the Govt. and the then Chief Minister, accept and acknowledge the tradition that this bridge as per the local legends was indeed built by the 'Vanara Sena'.

Evidence No:-7 Analyzing the term Vanara Sena

▪ How can Monkey Build Bridge??

▪ This is one of the myth haunting Hinduism.

▪ This myth had created an opportunity for western peoples to Criticize Hinduism and to tell Ramayana as Mythological.

▪ And I have saw in so many websites, blogs, Facebook saying How can Monkeys build Bridge?? How can Monkeys Talk??

▪ Answer to all their Criticism is Truth and Truth is HANUMAN IS NOT MONKEY.

▪ If you Read Valmiki Ramayana, The Word VANARA or BANARA is Used for Hanuman and his colleagues.

▪ The word VANARA doesn't means animal (monkey),
VANA means Forest and NARA means Human being
It's a word that used for Tribal peoples.


▪ Lord Hanuman is Classical Example for HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS Which is Part of Human Evolution.

▪ Here is the Correct Evolution Pattern According to Modern Science

▪ Nakalipithecus (Apes).
▪ Ouranopithecus
▪ Sahelanthropus (Early Bipedal)
▪ Australopithecine
▪ Australopithecus Africanus.
▪ Paranthropus Aethiopicus.
▪ Paranthropus Boisei.
▪ Paranthropus Robustus.
▪ Homo Habilis (ape like humanoid, half human and half animal).
▪ Homo Rudolfensis (ape like humanoid, half human and half animal).
▪ Homo Ergaster (ape like humanoid, half human and half animal).
▪ Homo Erectus (ape like humanoid almost nearer to Human Beings).
▪ Homo Heidelbergensis.(almost near to Human Beings).
▪ Homo Floresiensis (Dwarf Human Beings).
▪ Homo Rhodesiensis.(Almost Human beings - Forest peoples).
▪ Homo Neanderthalensis.(Almost Human Beings- Forest Peoples).
▪ Homo Sapiens.(Modern, Civilized Human Beings).

▪ So as I Said before Lord Hanuman is Classical Example for HOMO NEANDERTHALENSIS Who are much more stronger than Modern Human Beings, They can talk and Easily Build Bridge no doubt in that SCIENCE TOTALLY SUPPORTS.

Today Also you can find Homo Neanderthalensis,  species in African Forests.

Evolution means change in gene pool frequency within a population over long period of time and Mutation (Mutation is Double edged sword sometimes it is Beneficial as in case of Human Evolution but sometimes it is Harmful as in case of Pathogenesis of Cancer).

▪ You may Ask One more question Science Doesn’t have any fossil Evidence of Homo Neanderthalensis in India. Answer is simple In Ramayana time (7000 years ago) there was no India, It was Bharatha Kanda talking  about Entire Asia Continent and One more thing is Even From Ancient Times, Descendants of Sanatana Dharma People Practised Burning of Body instead of Burying and when body is burnt there is no chances of getting bones as fossils.

▪ You May Ask If Hanuman is Neanderthalensis Then why he has Tail. Answer is simple, No where written in Original Valmiki Ramayana text that he had tail, it is just mentioned Hanuman as Vanara.

▪ Great Indian Epics Ramayana and Mahabharata has got Corrupted During past 1000 years in time of Foreigners invasion of India, who always degraded our culture as blind idolaters and Gave cooked up Fake Aryan Invasion theory to tell our stories Ramayana and Mahabharata as Mythological.

Aryan Invasion Theory is Fake

▪ And One more thing is Ramayana was written in poetic form meaning writing a history in the form of poem, In a poem Say example Sometimes Beautiful Flowers in Garden are Compared to Twinkling stars in sky, What is Relation Between Twinkling star in sky and Flower in Garden? Its is just a poetic form of Expression of Beautiness of Flower.

▪ Similarly in Ramayana - Ravana's ten heads symbolize passion, pride, anger, greed, infatuation, lust, hatred, jealousy, selfishness and crookedness.
By slaying the 10-headed demon, Lord Sri Rama restored the rule of righteousness and goodness over adharma and lawlessness.


▪ Lord Hanuman was not MONKEY, He was VANARA (VANA - Forest, NARA -Human Being) Who Resembles Homo Neanderthalensis in appearance) who was much stronger than Homo sapiens (Modern Human Beings).

Evidence No:-8 Identifying and Analyzing Historical Sites

a.Cobra Hooded Cave – Sigiriya

▪ This is called Cobra Hooded Cave as it has its shape. The tradition states that Sita was held in captivity here. There are many pre-historic drawings on its ceiling.

▪ There is a distinct link between Sita and the cave and it the following is inscribed, ‘Parumaka naguliya lene’. It would have been inscribed after Rawana’s period but positively it has a connection to Sita’s stay in this cave, as the word ‘naguliya’ refers to Sita.

▪ According to Indian folklore Sita’s foster father King Janaka named her Sita, as she was found on the line of a ploughshare. [Refer Sir Mornier Williams Sanskrit – English Dictionary page 1218 Column 2] Raksha maidens called her Naguli, as she was born off the ploughshare.

▪ The most significant feature of the Rock was the Lion flight of steps leading to the palace garden on top. Of the Lion’s entrance all that what’s left now is the two huge paws and a heap of brickwork that enclose the primeval granite steps.

▪ The cuts and grooves on the rock face give an idea of the size and shape of the lion figure. There are also remains of paintings in some of the caves at the foot of the rock. The painting on the roof of the Cobra Hood Cave or Naguliya lene dates back to pre – Christian era.

b.Pulasthi Statue – Polonnaruwa

▪ In Polonnaruwa to the north of the Pothgul Vehera is a granite boulder, adorned with a large statue. This is one of the finest statues in the Island and measures 11 feet 6 inches in height. The historians and the archaeologists have not confirmed its identity to date.  Some refer to it as the statue of King Parakramabahu because its closeness to one of his major irrigation works; others refer to it as Rishi Pulasthi’s statue.  

▪ The presence of a Brahmanical sacred thread that runs from the left shoulder across the body and the Ola leaf book that he carries confirms that it is of Rishi Pulasthi.

▪ The third option is because Polonnaruwa was referred as Pulasthipura in primeval times. Prof Anuradha Seneviratna says that there is a worn out Rock Inscription which reads as ‘PULA THA SA’ behind the head of the statue. It proves that this statue is of Rishi Pulasthi.

c.Vessagiriya – Anuradhapura

Parumaka visrawaputha parumaka
Shramanaha lene shagasha yathe’
[Parumaka Shumana a descendent of Visravasmuni donated their abode to Maha Sangha)

▪ The above Brahmi inscriptions are in Vessagiriya cave. Parumakashumana was a great grandson of Visravasmuni.

d.Isurumuniya Lovers Carvings and Paintings

▪ ‘Siddha mahayaha kuni – maha (la) ka Asala   yaha (di) ni’ [Hail! The cell of Mahaya is given to Venerable Asalaya]
▪ The above Brahmi inscription was inscribed at the original place where the Isurumuniya Lovers were originally sculptured and placed. It is a special one as a letters in this inscription is 3 inches x 4 inches in size.

▪ After donating Vessagiriya to Maha Sangha this sculpture would have been removed and placed at its present place. The Lovers in the sculptured plaque are King Kuvera Vaisrawana and his Queen Kuni. Ramayana states that Vaisrawana who lived in Vessagiriya ruled Sri Lanka from Lankapura before Rawana. (Refer Sri Lanka Rawana Rajadhaniya – Ariyadasa Seneviratna Chapter 9).

e. Rishi Visravas Muni

▪ This stone monument placed at the celebrated Vessamuniya presently known as Isurumuniya Viharaya is of a bare bodied personality in deep meditation and significant bearing. A head of a horse can be seen behind the right shoulder.

▪ This sculpture has a head dressing and a “sacred thread” (poona noola)- a thread which is worn by ancient monastic personnel  can be seen.

▪ The histories of these monuments are not properly explored by the archaeologists. They have a very irregular view about this outstanding sculpture and have named it as “Man and Horse”. How they have come to these conclusions are not known.
▪ This celebrated sculpture is of Rishi Visravasmuni and his white horse.

f. Rumassal

▪ Rumassala is a massive hill oddly out of place in the landscape just outside the Galle harbour.

▪ Legend details that during the Rama – Rawana war Rama's brother Luxhmana, was injured and Hanuman was sent to Himalayas to fetch medicinal herbs. Hanuman forgot the name of the herb but he brought a chunk of the peak containing many herbs.

▪ However the mountain fragment slipped and broke into five pieces of which one fell to Rumassala. It should be noted that the renowned scientist Sir Arthur C. Clerk has a bungalow in the precincts of Rumassala, as it is said to be the place that has the highest specific gravity globally.

g. The Bassess

▪ According to Ramayana Sri Lanka was a huge continent. The early Indian astronomers established that the capital of Sri Lanka, as the equinoctial point in the universe. Rawana-Kotte [the great and little basses] is located off the southeast coast. This was one of Rawana's Fortresses, and an impregnable stronghold renowned for its seven concentric ramparts and parapet of brass.

▪ Maritime archaeological researchers have found a number of places and objects of archaeological and historical value from this zone which can be accessed by boat from Kirinda. The decision to proclaim this area a security zone was taken at a discussion held in last July between the Archaeological Department, Central Cultural Fund and Sri Lanka Navy. Legend says King Rawana had build fortresses at these locations which are submerged in the sea now.

h. Rawana Ella Cave and Temple

▪ Rawana Ella Cave is in the huge Ella Rock. In addition, Hanuman is said to have climbed up Ella Rock, in order to find Seetha in the cave. Seetha lived in this cave for sometime. It is said that Shiran Deraniyagala excavated this cave and found some pre historic fossils.

Location: From Bandarawela pass Ella to Ravana Cave
▪ Legend: These tunnels prove beyond doubt the architectural brilliance of King Ravana. The tunnels served as a quick means of transport through the hills and also as a secret passage. They networked all the important cities, airports and dairy farms. A close look at these tunnels indicates that they are man-made and not natural formations.

▪ Existing tunnel mouths are also situated at Ishtripura in Welimada, Senapitiya in Halagala, Ramboda, Labookelle, Wariyapola in Matale, and Seetha Kotuwa in Hasalaka and in many more places.

i. Rawana Falls

▪ Rawana Falls is located on the Ella – Kithalella road below the famous Rawana cave where Sita was in captivity.

▪ It can be viewed by taking a walk along the railway track. The other route is along a farm road; over a small rock bridge you can have a close look at one of the most ignored waterfalls in the country that speaks of prehistory.

▪ There are many legends linking Rawana and Sita and the falls. Below the fall nearby a pool bored out of the rock by the gushing

j. Rawana Carvings

▪ This carving is carved on a rock on the Ella – Wellawaya road. It is visible from the main road if one takes an interest in locating it. It was discovered recently. Getting closer is not safe as the surroundings are full of wasps. This carving has lot of similarities to Rishi Pulasthi’s statue. This is the only historical caving of Rawana available globally.

k. Stripurakanda- Kiriwanagama

▪ Rawana hid Sita in Stripurakanda Caves at Kiriwanagama but changed her place of stay from time to time. This is the most wide and far-reaching cave in Sri Lanka. It is spacious and possible to walk a considerable distance inside. A team of villagers who walked with me inside this cave to a considerable distance had to stop due to earth slips and was able to see bats beyond it. This confirms that this cave extends further.

L. Manawela Falls

▪ Man made Wells and a Drip Ledged Room is located close to below the Manawela waterfalls close to Stripurakanda. The legend states that it is linked to the Stripurakanda cave and Sita walked through the cave for her daily bath. On the rock of the falls is a man made drip ledged space similar to a room. It is said that this drip ledged room was made for Sita change her clothes. Close to it lies number of man-made wells on the rock from which she bathed.

m. Ritigala

▪ Ritigala has 70 caves that have been used as dwellings by the earliest inhabitants of Sri Lanka and subsequently as monasteries.

▪ Ritigala in the Anuradhapura District is associated with the episode in the Ramayana where Hanuman is sent to the Himalayas to fetch medicinal herb to treat the injured Lakshmana.

▪ However, the mountain fragment slipped and fell while Hanuman was over Lanka, and it broke into pieces. 

▪ These landed in different locations, one of which was Ritigala. This mountain of mystery is said to have most rare medicinal herbs and plants from Himalayas on its summit.

n. Inscriptions found on Wegiriya,Molagoda and Rahalagala


▪ Location – Wegiriya – Kandy


Translation – Lord Sumana Upasika Tissa …naya Upasika Thishalaya Upasika householder Marasa pilot Kubakana … Sonaha Ivory worker Sumana (In accordance with Ramayana).


▪ Location – Molagoda Viharaya – Kandy

▪ Translation according to the inscription: - The cave owned by the pilot of an aeroplane son of Chieftain Suri was donated to Maha Sangha (In accordance with Ramayana).


▪ Location – Rahalagala Aranayaka


▪ Translation’ – Emperor Rawana's son parumaka Indrajith son parumaka Agiya’s cave (In accordance with Ramayana).

O.Seetha Kotuwa

▪ Location: Gurulupotha - Hasalaka
▪ Legend: This is the place where the city of Lankapura once stood. The city had a beautiful palace for queen Mandothari surrounded by waterfalls, streams and varieties of flora and fauna. Seetha Devi was kept in this palace until she was moved to Ashoka Vatika. Seetha Kotuwa means Seetha's fort and got its name because of Seetha Devi's stay here.

p. The Chariot Path and Seetha Tear pond

Location: The jungle on the top of Ramboda Hills, on the Kandy - Gampola - Nuwara-Eliya Road.

Legend: The barren land here is believed to be the route along which Ravana took Seetha Devi from his capital city Lankapura to Ashoka Vatika, to show her the beauty of his kingdom which was a paradise on earth. To date no vegetation grows on this passage except grass.

q. Ashok Vatika

Location: Nuwaraeliya

Legend: The Ashok Vatika is the place where Ravana kept the Sita captive. Ashok Vatika is a garden that is present in the Sita Eliya in Sri Lanka. Some of the interesting findings here include the rock on which Sita used to sat and meditate. Sita Eliya also have the only Site Temple in the world. The idols of Sita was excavated from here 100 years ago.

Evidence No:-9 Conclusions than can be done from NASA Satellite images of Rama Setu

▪ NASA through their satellites have been photographing the skies and different parts of the world. In this process, they have also photographed South India and Sri Lanka. Being Satellite / aerial photography the bridge is also clearly visible in the photograph as a causeway. These photograph suddenly kindled the interest in the Indians who were looking for scientific proofs for the bridge constructed by Rama and his team.

▪ NASA in their statement on these photographs have stated that the land at both ends of the causeway are over 1.7 million years old which can be corroborated with geology, archaeology and other fields.

▪ Obviously for the purpose of dating this land, photography is not the only method. It can at best be an additional tool. Some over zealous persons jumped on to this suggestive date as it fitted well with the Indian Treta Yuga calculation in lakhs of years. This obviously led to a denial statement from the NASA officials.

▪ We need to look at the images and the original statements of NASA and draw a scientific understanding of what the bridge / causeway can mean.

There are three things that we can draw from NASA’s photograph statements are

▪ The bridge / causeway has been identified as Adam’s bridge.

▪ The time period mentioned therein of 1.7 million years is not of the bridge / causeway but the two ends of the adjoining land.

▪ The shape of this structure which has a unique curvature suggests that it could be man made. It is not an emphatic statement, but only a suggestive view based on an observation.

Evidence No:- 10 Archeology of Rama Setu

Rama Setu an Ancient Marvelous Civil engineering of 5076 BCE

▪ One of the ways of proving historicity today is to show archeological proof or evidence. But continuous civilization, while a marvel by itself, does not leave intact, sufficient archeological remnants of its ancestors.

Generations come and go and as they keep building and rebuilding their cities, they destroy or alter these remains in order to sustain themselves.
▪ Hence while the continuous civilizations and culture itself is an existing evidence, archeological artifacts are hard to come by.

Shri B.B. Lal
Director General, Retd.,
Archaeological Survey of India,

"No contemporary inscriptional evidence is available to establish the historicity of the epic. An advantage in approaching this problem is, the sites mentioned in the epic, bear same names even today. This is because these sites have remained under continuous occupation ever since the 1st settlement began thereat. Authenticity of the names is there, as there is only one Mathura, Hastinapura, Ayodhya, Chitrakoota."   

▪ Since all traditional archealogical evidences are not directly available due to an elapse of time of more than 7,200 years coupled continuous civilization, the bridge is probably the only archaeological evidence!

What does the text say about this bridge and what do we find on site?

▪ Contrary to just mentioning in passing, the Ramayana has detail verses explaining the construction of the bridge. The steps followed by Rama in constructing the bridge seem to be no different from those employed by modern day Civil engineering and Construction companies.

Textual Description:

▪ It says that, during Rama’s encounter with the sea, they gathered that it was in the nature of the seas to be deep and not shallow, to have waves and fierce sea creatures. Given this, it was essential to find a path where Rama and his army would find it easy to cross the sea.

▪ Nala who introduced himself as the biological descendant of Vishwakarma, an architect par excellence, offered his services for the design and construction of a bridge.

▪ On his advice, the Vanara then piled different varieties of trees and then large boulders followed by smaller stones to create a causeway over the sea in 5 days, over which they crossed and reached Lanka.

Survey of the conditions
Samudra Deva says
"O, beloved Rama !
Earth, wind, ether, water and light
remain fixed in their own nature,
resorting to their eternal path.
I am fathomless and my nature is that
it is impossible of being swum across.
It becomes unnatural if I am shallow.I am telling you the following device to cross me.
O, Prince!
Neither from desire nor ambition
nor fear, nor from affection,
I am able to solidify my waters inhabited by Makarah.
O, Rama!
I shall make it possible to see that you are able to cross over.
I will arrange a place for the vanara to cross me
and bear with it. As far as the army crosses me,
the Makarah will not be aggressive to them."
(Ramayana 6.22.25 - 28).

Planning and Deciding the approach
▪ "I am a son born of Visvakarma's own loins. I am equal to Viswakarma. This god of Ocean has reminded me. The great ocean spoke the truth. Being unasked, I have not told you my details earlier. I am capable of constructing a bridge across the ocean. Hence, let the foremost of vanara build the bridge now itself."

Construction of the bridge
Description in the Ramayana. Yudha Kandam. Sloka 6.22.50 – 72

"Then, being sent by Rama, hundreds and thousands of vanara, heroes jumped in joy on all sides, towards the great forest.

▪ Those army-chiefs of vanara, who resembled mountains, broke the rocks and trees there and dragged them away towards the sea.

▪ Those vanara filled the ocean with all types of trees like Sala and Asvakarna, Dhava and bamboo, Kutaja, Arjuna, palmyra, Tilaka, Tinisa, Bilva, Saptaparna, Karnika, in bloom as also mango and Asoka.

▪ The excellent vanara, the forest animals lifted and brought, like Indra's flag post, some trees with roots intact and some others without roots. From here and there the vanara brought Palmyra trees, pomegranate shrubs, coconut and Vibhitaka, Karira, Bakula and neem trees.

▪ The huge bodied vanara with mighty strength uprooted elephant-sized rocks and Mountains and transported them by mechanical contrivances. The water, raised up due to sudden throwing of mountains in the sea, soured upward towards the sky and from there again, gushed back.

▪ The rocks befalling on all sides perturbed the ocean. Some others drew up strings a hundred Yojanas long, - in order to keep the rocks in a straight line.

▪ Nala on his part initiated a monumental bridge in the middle of the ocean. The bridge was built at that time with the cooperation of other vanara, of terrible doings. Some vanara were holding poles for measuring the bridge and some others collected the materials. Reeds and logs resembling clouds and mountains, brought by hundreds of vanara, lead by the command of Rama, fastened some parts of the bridge.

▪ Vanara constructed the bridge with trees having blossom at the end of their boughs. Some vanara looking like demons seized rocks resembling mountains and peaks of mountains and appeared running hither and thither. Then, a tumultuous sound occurred when the rocks were thrown into the sea and when mountains were caused to fall there.

▪ On the 1st day, 14 Yojana of bridge were constructed by the vanara speedily, thrilled with delight as they were, resembling elephants.

▪ In the same manner, on the 2nd day 20 Yojana of bridge were constructed speedily by the vanara of terrific bodies and of mighty strength.

▪ Thus, on the 3rd day 21 Yojana of the bridge were constructed in the ocean speedily by the vanara with their colossal bodies.

▪ On the 4th day, a further of 22 Yojana were constructed by the dashing vanara with a great speed.

▪ In that manner, on the 5th day, the vanara working quickly constructed 23 Yojana of the bridge up to the other seashore.

▪ That Nala, the strong and illustrious son of Vishwakarma and an excellent vanara built the bridge across the sea as truly as his father would have built it. That beautiful and lovely bridge constructed by Nala across the ocean the abode of crocodiles, shone brightly like a milkyway of stars in the sky."

From the above description, the bridge construction can be graphically explained as follows.

Physical Observation : Today there is a natural sea ridge formation over the seabed linking the land masses of India and Sri Lanka.

▪ This formation presents a good foundation over which, the Vanara of yore could have easily augmented and created a causeway bridge. This would vindicate Rama’s encounter with the sea to find a place in the sea where it would be easy for Rama and his army to cross over.

▪ 'Amar Chitra Katha' is a popular and widely accepted as an authentic expression of Indian legends. In their depiction of Ramayana, they clearly show the layers of the bridge construction, with a wood base on top of which large boulders have been piled on.   

▪ The question now is whether, under the layers of hardened sands, do the layers of this bridge show remnants of the trees and rocks as placed there by the Vanara over the natural ridge, under the guidance of Nala, as described in the text?

▪ Dr. S. Badrinaryanan, Geologist - former Director of Geological Survey of India and Consultant at the National Institute of Oceanic Technology (NIOT), has done extensive geological research of the bridge, and this is what he has to say:

"Geological & geophysical studies of Ram Sethu reveal the presence of loose marine sand below the coral layer, clearly indicating the coral layer in the form of boulders are not natural and formed on their own, but have been transported by somebody and dumped there; thus clearly establishing the fact that Ram Sethu is very much man made in the hoary past."

▪ The texts state that the bridge’s length is a 100 Yojana and the breadth is 10 Yojana making a ratio of 10:1.

▪ Today the bridge, from Dhanushkodi to Talaimannar, measures approx 35 km in length and 3.5 km in breadth making it of the same ratio of 10:1 as mentioned in the texts.
Post Completion

▪ Rama spoke to Sita en route from Lanka to Ayodhya

"Survey the city of Lanka perched on a summit of the Trukuta Mountain, resembling a peak of Mountain Kailasha."

▪ "Here see the landing place on the seashore where having crossed the ocean, we spent that night."

▪ "Here is the bridge called Nala Sethu so called because it was constructed by the vanara Chief Nala, which was so difficult to execute for others."

▪ It is very clear from the above statement that Rama has himself called this bridge 'Nala Setu' because of the singular effort of Nala in executing this civil engineering marvel.

What do our other traditional literature say about this bridge?

▪ Nala Setu, a protected monument during Mahabharata times

nalasetur iti khyato yo 'dyapi prathito bhuvi ramasyajnac purask - tya dharyate girisacnibha
- (Mahabharata 3.267.45)
▪ which even today, popular on earth as Nala's bridge, mountain like is sustained out of respect for Lord Rama's command.

▪ Further, in the Mahabartaha text, when the 5 Pandava brothers roam the forest during their exile period, they visit the Ashrama of Rishi Markendeya, who regales them with the histories of their land.

Thus the Setu has been discussed in literature as a protected monument through the ages.
▪ The findings at the site of the Rama Setu tally with the literature on the construction of the bridge.
▪ The detailed reports of the few surveys conducted till date, point to the Setu being a man made accretion over a natural formation.

Also please watch this video of Ram Setu of today without miss
(Don't miss to watch it)

Also watch this video
(Don't Miss to Watch it).

How did the name change from Nala Setu to Adam’s Bridge?

▪ The Sri Lankan Muslims called this bridge as ‘Aadhaam Bridge’ because their first Islamic leader traveled over this bridge by foot from India and thus this bridge has a holy connotation for them.

▪ When the Europeans conquered Sri Lanka, since the name Adam was easy on their tongue and had a meaning for the Europeans too, it popularly came to be called Adam’s Bridge.

▪ Rama after winning over Ravana and rescuing Sita flew back in the Pushpaka Vimana. During this flight Rama shows to Sita this particular bridge they crossed over and explains to her that the construction of this bridge was very difficult and it was possible due to the ingenuity and the engineering skill of Nala and hence he has called the bridge as ‘Nala Setu’.

▪ Later, the people due to their adoration to Rama called this bridge ‘Rama Setu’.

Evidence no 11:- Mystery of Floating Stones of Ramasetu

▪ Rama Setu took 5 days to build by 10 Million Vanara army under the supervision of Architects Neel and Nala.

▪ It is believed that RAMA Setu is made of a chain of limestone shoals.

▪ It is 30 Km Long and 3 Km Wide. It Starts from Dhanushkodi tip of India’s Pamban Island and ends at Sri Lanka’s Mannar Island. Sea in these areas is very shallow.

▪ In Ramayan it is mentioned that the bridge was built by Stones and these stone starts Floating on water by touch of Nala & Neel. Some such stones were scattered at Rameswaram during the Tsunami ,these stones still float on water.

▪ Many Geologist says RAMA Setu is built by natural process but failed to Provide enough proofs. Apart from Ramayana there are several facts which say Rama Setu is Man-made Structure.

▪ Facts that prove it is Man Made
The places mentioned in Ramayan exactly matches to the current location of the bridge.

▪ Temple records say that Rama’s Bridge was completely above sea level until it broke in a cyclone in AD 1480. Ram Setu was walkable till 1480 AD. NASA Says what had been captured by satellite is naturally occurring chain of sandbanks.

▪ Battle between Science & Spirituality is running over a decade. Science relies on logics , facts & proofs whereas Spirituality is largely related to belief. According to Hindu belief Ram Setu was built by Lord Rama to cross the sea. Stones used to make the bridge floated on water because Rama was written on stones. But there is a complete scientific explanation why stones floated on water & why now Ram Setu is under water.

▪ A scientific possibility
If air is trapped within a shell of silica it would look like a stone but would actually be very light and would thus float. Another example is Ice. When put into glass having liquid, ice floats on liquid & after some time it sinks. Another prime example is of “Pumice” stone.

About Pumice stone
Pumice is one such stone that floats on water. Pumice is the name given to the hardened foam of lava when it comes out of a volcano. The inside of a volcano has very high pressure, and can be as hot as 1600 degree Celsius. When the lava comes out of the volcano, it meets the cool air (and sometimes sea water), which is around 25 degree Celsius.

▪ Two things happen immediately
Air and water that were mixed in the lava bubble out, as the pressure falls. The huge difference in temperature gives the lava a ‘cold shock’, so it freezes almost immediately. So the bubbles get trapped in the freezing stone, giving it a very spongy appearance. In some kinds of pumice, the bubbles can make upto 90% of the volume.

▪ Dense stones do not float on water
But because pumice is full of air bubbles, it is less dense than water. So in the beginning it will float. But in time, water will enter the bubbles driving out the air. Slowly, the pumice sinks. This also explains why the Ram Setu is under water today. Pumice doesn’t float forever. However, this theory is not 100 per cent correct. Read on to know how some scientists dismiss the Pumice stone theory….

▪ Strange floating stones of Rameshwaram
Some floating stones are found on the coastal regions of Rameshwaram. These stones are similar to any other stone and possess the same features, physical and chemical composition like the stone you may find in your locality. Seeing these stones from a far distance, you may feel that this stone is made of corals but on physical examination, it is found that this is not a coral stone...and neither is it a pumice stone!

▪ Debunking the Pumice stone theory
There is no volcano near Rameshwaram nor is there any evidence which claims the existence of volcano in the areas surrounding Rameshwaram over the last few millions of years. Also, floating stones of Rameshwarm are not light weighted like pumice rocks and doesn’t have the chemical composition similar to pumice rocks.

▪ There is no exception
It might be possible that this is some special kind of heavy pumice rocks found only at Rameshwaram but if this would have been the case, then it would have been confirmed by Indian archeologists. According to visitors, some of the stones do look like pumice but are extremely heavy to be called as pumice. Also, color of the pumice rocks is white or creamish in color but there are many black floating stones in Rameshwaram.

▪ NASA images of Ram Setu
This bridge made of floating stones can still be seen between India and Sri Lanka from Rameshwaram, the place where Lord ram prayed to lord Shiva and started the construction of the bridge. Since this story is very old and unproven, many historians, scientists and archaeologists deny accepting this bridge to be built by lord Rama but at the same time they are unable to explain the concept of floating stones found in Rameshwaram.

▪ It’s not Ram Setu but corals?
Scientist has been claiming far and wide that the stones of ram setu are actually coral formation. Nasa scientists even release the photo where they claims the Ram setu underwater bridge to be coral formation. Take a look at the image release by their space shuttle.

▪ No, there is definitely a bridge out there!
There is nothing like floating coral because coral is calcium carbonate, and its chemical composition is too dense to float on water. Geologist claims that after years of formation of layers on ocean bed, coral stones are formed within the layer, but when they were asked why these stones were formed only in Rameshwaram and nowhere else there were no answers. Also, coral stones don’t occur naturally in the sea, they occur only on hard surface.

▪ Unknown science behind floating stones
Until the scientists come up with a convincible theory maybe we can consider Rama Setu as an engineering masterpiece. The technology once existed to make stones float on water and the architect like Nala and Neela were too advanced in building a bridge from India to Sri Lanka within 5 days with the help of dedicated workforce of million Vanaras.

Evidence No:- 12 Analysis of Ancient Aeroplanes of Ramayana and Mahabharata

▪ A five thousand year old ancient Indian VIMANA found in Afghanistan cave, eight American soldiers stuck in TIME WELL disappeared in attempt to remove it.

▪ 5000 yr old ancient Indian vimana found in Afghanistan cave

▪ A 5000 year old Vimana, an aerial vehicle from ancient India was  discovered in a cave in Afghanistan, that has caused the disappearance of at least 8 American Soldiers ( stuck in a “Time Well” ) in an attempt to extract it from the cave. The discovery caused a flurry of high level visits to the area by some powerful leaders of the western world.   

Ancient Indian vimana

▪ Great leaders suspicious visits to Afghanistan
In the summer of 2012 the leaders of the most important occidental countries made consecutive visits that were considered “suspicious” in Afghanistan, at short intervals one from another with in week Barack Obama, David Cameron, Nicholas Sarkozy (which was then the President of France) and Angela Merkel.

▪ At that time Nicholas Sarkozy was already in India when suddenly he left that country going to Afghanistan.

▪The following question was naturally asked: why all this suspicious rush of all great world’s political personalities towards Afghanistan? The leak of information – even if partial – coming from the US Air Force seemed to have offered the answer: an ancient flying machine approximately 5000 years old called Vimana in the Hindu writings, was found in one of the caves of the complicated mountain chain from Afghanistan.The writing Mahabharata from the Hindu tradition made numerous references to these flying machines.

Eight American soldiers suddenly disappeared
▪ In the case of the great discovery in Afghanistan, A group of soldiers made the discovery on a scout mission in the desert of Afghanistan.

▪ A Vimana is an ancient flying machine described in ancient Indian scripts. It is said to be protected by a strange energy barrier that is preventing troops from extracting the Vimana. the shocking element – that was kept a secret – was that the certain Vimana seemed to be caught in a strange temporal loop.

▪ Until now it seemed like 8 American militaries suddenly disappeared ( Stucked in time well ) when they tried to move the ship from its position in the cave.

What is Time Well
▪ To the “Time Well” encasing the Vimana, it appears to be an electromagnetic radiation-gravity field first postulated by Albert Einstein as the Unified Field Theory and long rumored to be behind the infamous American World War II experiment in teleportation called the Philadelphia Experiment that in 1943, like the events occurring in Afghanistan today, likewise, caused the sudden “disappearance” of US Soldiers.

▪ There are also ample references followed by explanations, detailed construction designs and energetic solutions in many other Hindu writings, among which the most important is Vimanika Shastra where it is stated that the Hindu Vimanas had the capacity to fly with a great speed through the terrestrial atmosphere, under water, through oceans and also in outer space.

▪ While researching the Vedas (ancient texts) including around 50 episodes of the Mahabharata, Sir Desmond Leslie concluded that the ancient chariots or flying machines called Vimanas were actually anti gravitic vehicles and some of the weapons (Brahma weapon) could well have been nuclear bombs or death rays. Descriptions in the Vedas of the resulting carnage were reminiscent of Hiroshima.

Ancient Indian vimana tech. Diagram
▪ Reference to ancient Indian flying vehicles comes from ancient Indian sources, many are the well known ancient Indian scripts, and there are literally hundreds of them. Most of them have not even been translated into English yet from the old Sanskrit.

▪ It is claimed that a few years ago, the Chinese discovered some sanskrit documents in Lhasa, Tibet and sent them to the University of Chandrigarh to be translated. Dr. Ruth Reyna of the University said recently that the documents contain directions for building interstellar spaceships!

Ancient vimana proof in stone age caves
▪ Their method of propulsion, she said, was “anti-gravitational” and was based upon a system analogous to that of “laghima,” the unknown power of the ego existing in man’s physiological makeup, “a centrifugal force strong enough to counteract all gravitational pull”. According to Hindu Yogis, it is this “laghima” which enables a person to levitate. Dr. Reyna said that on board these machines, which were called “Astras” by the text, the ancient Indians could have sent a detachment of men onto any planet, according to the document, which is thought to be thousands of years old. The manuscripts were also said to reveal the secret of “antima”, “the cap of invisibility” and “garima”, “how to become as heavy as a mountain of lead”.

▪ Vimāna is a word with several meanings ranging from temple or palace to mythological flying machines described in Sanskrit. From the ancient accounts found in The Mahabharata, we know that a Vimana measured twelve cubits in circumference, with four strong wheels.

▪ Apart from its ‘blazing missiles’, The Mahabharata records the use of its other deadly weapons that operated via a circular ‘reflector’. When switched on, it produced a ‘shaft of light’ which, when focused on any target, immediately ‘consumed it with its power’. So it is a good bet that the weapons described on the Vimana in Afghanistan would attract the attention of foreign governments and the U.S. government.

▪ Technology of some Vimanas are mentioned in some ancient indian sanskrit scripts Vedas.

▪ The Yujurveda quite clearly tells of a flying machine, which was used by the Asvins (two heavenly twins). The Vimana is simply a synonym for flying machine. It occurs in the Yajurveda, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana, as well as in classical Indian literature.

▪ At least 20 passages in the Rigveda (1028 hymns to the gods) refer exclusively to the flying vehicle of the Asvins. This flying machine is represented as three-storeyed, triangular and three –wheeled. It could carry at least three passengers. According to tradition the machine was made of gold, silver and iron, and had two wings. With this flying machine the Asvins saved King Bhujyu who was in distress at sea.  

▪ Every scholar knows the Vaimanika Shastra, a collection of sketches the core of which is attributed to Bharatvaj the Wise around the 4th century B.C. The writings in the Vaimanika Shastra were rediscovered in 1875. The text deals with the size and the most important parts of the various flying machines. We learn how they steered, what special precautions had to be taken on long flights, how the machines could be protected against violent storms and lightning, how to make a forced landing and even how to switch the drive to solar energy to make the fuel go further. Bharatvaj refers to no fewer than 70 authorities and ten experts of Indian air travel in antiquity!

▪ The description of these machines in old Indian texts are amazingly precise. The difficulty we are faced with today is basically that the texts mention various metals and alloys which we cannot translate. We do not know what our ancestors understood by them. In the Amarangasutradhara five flying machines were originally built for the gods Brahma, Vishnu, Yama, Kuvera and Indra. Later there were some additions.

▪ Four main types of flying Vimanas are described: Rukma, Sundara, Tripura and Sakuna. The Rukma were conical in shape and dyed gold, whereas the Sundata were like rockets and had a silver sheen. The Tripura were three-storeyed and the Sakuna looked like birds. There were 113 subdivisions of these four main types that differed only in minor details. The position and functioning of the solar energy collectors are described in the Vaimanika Shastra. It says that eight tubes had to be made of special glass absorbing the sun’s ray. A whole series of details are listed, some of which we do not understand. The Amaranganasutradhara even explains the drive, the controls and the fuel for the flying machine. It says that quicksilver and ‘Rasa’ were used. Unfortunately we do not yet know what “Rasa’ was.

▪ Ten sections deal with uncannily topical themes such as pilot training, flight paths, the individual parts of flying machines, as well as clothing for pilots and passengers, and the food recommended for long flights. There was much technical detail: the metals used, heat-absorbing metals and their melting point, the propulsion units and various types of flying machines. The information about metals used in construction name three sorts, somala, soundaalika and mourthwika. If they were mixed in the right proportions, the result was 16 kinds of heat-absorbing metals with names like ushnambhara, ushnapaa, raajaamlatrit, etc. which cannot be translated into English. The texts also explained how to clean metals, the acids such as lemon or apple to be used and the correct mixture, the right oils to work with and the correct temperature for them.

▪ Seven types of engine are described with the special functions for which they are suited and the altitudes at which they work best. The catalogue is not short of data about the size of the machines, which had storeys, nor of their suitability for various purposes.

▪ This text is recommended to all who doubt the existence of flying machines in antiquity. The mindless cry that there were no such things would have to fall silent in shame.
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Evidence no 13- Analysing Ravana Pushpak Vimana Axle

▪ Erich Von Daniken in his Book Chariot of The Gods has advanced a theory that the Aliens have visited the treat and altered our genetic code.

▪ In the course of his theory, he mentions about the Atomic explosion in Mahabharata and speaks of The Pushpaka Vimana of Ravana and calls it a Spaceship.

▪ Evidence coming to light of date and advanced dating methods have proved that the Indian Epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata were not mere stories but facts.

▪ Puranic statements have also been found to be true.

▪ I had posted an article on The Caves and  the Chariot of Ravana.

▪ Now there seems to be some evidence that Ravana had a Spaceship and its part , looking like an Axle has been found in Sri Lanka.

▪ Indeed, it was even said that he had five landing strips for his flying machines. Keep in mind, this was 10,000+ years ago, centuries before air travel was thought to have been possible.

▪ There have been speculations of three areas in Sri Lanka being the possible landing strips for these aircraft–and to look at the area today, there are indentations marked there for centuries that appear to have been purposely created for the purpose of landing an airplane.

▪ Maha-eliya, (the area now referred to as “Horton’s Plains”) Ussangoda in Hambanthota and Wariyapola.still have these marks on their landscape and with the discovery of this ancient coffin the story of Ramayana may have been more than just a myth.

▪ Stargate markings are never found so clear in anywhere in the world. But in Sri Lanka, the Ranmasu uyana contains stone carving which is believed to be a key to a star gate with secret symbols.

▪ This has been carved in a stone wall located in the very same place and believed to be keeping all the key secrets to universal travels through star gates. Some of the Indian ideologists and propagandist historians define this great marking as a useless stone tablet but their sole intention is to suppress the true history of great ‘Hela Yakka’ generation lived in ancient Lanka thus keep Sri Lanka under their iron tyranny.

▪ The meaning of Ranmasu uyana reveals lot of secrets. The word itself define that it is “priceless land” because it may carries secrets to universal travels through stargate


Evidence No- 14 Answering the Frequently Asked questions about Ramayana

Some Frequently Asked Questions

Q- Certain literary analysts have placed the Valmiki Ramayana to be of the period of 300 BCE based on the style of the language. How do you then place the events of Ramayana to be around 5000 BCE?

▪ Valmiki is considered to be the first poet or Adikavi of the Sanskrit language. The European colonial scholars had given this date of 300 BCE because they then had to fit the literary Indian calendar well within 1200 BCE.

▪ In the last 5 decades of research, this upper cap of 1200 BCE has been rightfully dismissed based on ground facts arrived at using modern scientific processes. This gives the present day analysts the flexibility of placing the text where they naturally belong to.

▪ Their earlier assumption was that if the Veda were compiled in 1200 BCE, then Panini must have lived around 500 BCE. Since the Ramayana narration style is in line with the Paninian grammar, the Ramayana must have been composed post Panini, somewhere around 300 BCE.

▪ Now it has been proved that the Veda were not compiled in 1200 BCE but were infact compiled well before 3000 BCE. Given this, the date of Panini also needs to be looked at afresh and fixed accordingly. A group of literary analysts in their opinion, because of the style of writing have given this date.

▪ Giving a specific date to a text and hence dating the events mentioned in that text, by a few literary analysts, purely based only on analysis of the “literary style” of the language is only an opinion and can at best be termed as a soft evidence.

▪ Whereas, in contrast, dating the events in a text using the hard evidences in the form of “content in the text” that tallies and cross verifies with scientific finds and other texts and legends, across times, is a much more reliable method.

▪ Looking from this hard evidence perspective, 5114 BCE for Rama and the events in Ramayana seems to be a more reliable date.

Q- We are told that, in India, an oral tradition of knowledge transmission was followed. If so, how can we rely on this written text as containing authentic data?

▪ It is only the Veda which are known as Sruti and meant to be orally transmitted. They were never intended to be written down. Various error correcting transmission techniques were put in place to ensure the correctness of this transmission.

▪ Whereas, the 2 Itihasa namely the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were written texts which were copied through the ages in different medium over generations through the land, which continues to happen even today for our current texts. From this what comes out, is that minor additions and deletions could have and have taken place in various versions of these texts across the land. On close scrutiny of the different versions is that, the core data is same across these versions.

Q- Why do we have so many versions of Valmiki Ramayana?

▪ These can be called versions or more correctly as editions. Different chroniclers and writers of the Ramayana legend have woven their own interpretation, language and style in their respective edition of Ramayana.

▪ This is obviously because each of these writers, commented based on how they understood the facts of the core data in their times. Hence the multiple versions and editions.

Q-Why do we also have various adaptations of Valmiki Ramayana such as Tulsidas’ Ramcharit Manas, Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsha or Kamban’s Ramayana? Which do we use as the authentic text?

▪ Firstly, it is important to note that all these adaptations across ages are in different forms such as plays, ballads or religious texts. The focus and purpose of each of these poets was different and the social conditions of their times have found expression too in the message conveyed through their works.

▪ When doing a scientific or historic research of an ancient civilization, it is essential to scan through the variety of versions and adaptations and gather the common, credible, core data to analyse and appreciate the historicity of Rama.

Q- How do we explain the monkeys in Ramayana?

▪ Monkeys is a term that has been loosely used in the last couple of hundred years to express the term Vanara in the English language. The term Vanara when analysed can give us vital suggestive clues, to what it really represented, some of them being:

▪ People of the forest or Vana
Vanara could be an exclamation as to “Are they human too?”; so human like but yet so different. This may have been the way to express different varieties of people as evident from other words in ur ancient texts such as Kinnara or Kimpurusha too.

▪ It is interesting to note here that, in the British records of the gazette of Bellary district, which is very near modern day Hampi or Kishkinda of earlier times, the then collector has noted that the forest tribes of that area, call themselves the Vanara people and used Monkey as a symbol in their totem pole and flag.
For More details please Read our Evidence no- 7

Q- Rama is said to have been born in the Treta Yuga. How does this tally with the date of 5114 BCE?

▪ There are different types of Yuga. Till date we have been able to enumerate at least 7 different types. The time span of a Yuga starts from 1 year to 5 years and all the way up to 43,20, 000 years.

▪ Of these, which variety of Treta Yuga is discussed in the Ramayana text is still unclear.

▪ Further detailed research is required on this. Scholars who have researched on these multiple Yuga concepts and their applicability to various legends are welcome to contact us as with their technical opinion to take this study forward.

Q- Was there really a Pushpaka Vimana during Ramayana period?

▪ There have been a variety Vimana or flying machines in the Indian puranic literature. Pushpaka vimana is just one among the many. There are separate technical literature available such as Vaimanika Sastra by Maharishi Bharadwaja in which the avionics of these vimana is discussed in good detail. In the series of Bharath Gyan, we have a separate capsule on Vimana, where these avionics are discussed in detail.
For more Details Please Read Our Evidence no:- 12





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