What Exactly is Parapsychology?

▪ Parapsychology is the scientific and scholarly study of  kinds of unusual events such as ESP, Vague Response, Near-Death Experience, Out Of Body Experience, Mind-matter interaction, Consciousness Studies, Reincarnation, Precognition, Retrocognition, etc.  

▪ The existence of these phenomena suggest that the strict subjective/objective dichotomy proposed by the old paradigm (see below) may not be quite so clear-cut as once thought.

▪ Instead, these phenomena may be part of a spectrum of what is possible, with some events and experiences occasionally falling between purely subjective and purely objective. We call such phenomena "anomalous" because they are difficult to explain within current scientific models.

▪ Parapsychology only studies those anomalies that fall into one of three general categories: ESP (terms are defined below), mind-matter interaction (previously known as psychokinesis), and phenomena suggestive of survival after bodily death, including near-death experiences, apparitions, and reincarnation.

▪ Most parapsychologists today expect that further research will eventually explain these anomalies in scientific terms, although it is not clear whether they can be fully understood without significant (some might say revolutionary) expansions of the current state of scientific knowledge.

▪ Other researchers take the stance that existing scientific models of perception and memory are adequate to explain some or all parapsychological phenomena.

What is Psychokinesis?

▪ Psychokinesis is a Paranormal action; term coined by Henry Holt and adopted by J. B. Rhine to refer to the direct influence of mind on a physical system that cannot be entirely accounted for by the mediation of any known physical energy. See also Psi-Kappa under Psi; Retroactive PK; Recurrent Spontaneous Psychokinesis. [From the Greek psyche, “mind, soul,” + kinesis, “a moving, disturbance,” derived from kinein, “to set in motion”.

What is a paradigm?

▪ When one speaks about a topic which is controversial to many, such as parapsychology, it is crucial to understand the concept of a paradigm. A paradigm is an underlying worldview. It can be thought of as a framework of beliefs which are so taken for granted that most folks are not even aware they have made any assumptions.

▪ A paradigm helps us to make sense of the world around us. But perhaps more importantly, in terms of science, it not only determines what is true, but how truth itself can be determined.

▪ There is an obvious catch to this. If one does not recognize the underlying assumptions one makes with a paradigm, it has the potential to limit our perception of the world, what we can discover, and how we can determine that knowledge.

▪ The old paradigm, which many have held since the days of Descartes, states that the subjective and objective worlds are completely distinct, with no overlap. Subjective is "here, in the head," and objective is "there, out in the world."

▪ The Cartesian paradigm presupposes that there are objective ways to define and measure the fixed external world--which the proponents of this paradigm would say is the only world that matters. The classical paradigm favors experimental research design, which presumes to measure the world in an objective way.

▪ Quantum theory triggered a fundamental shift in how we understand the world. Physicists suddenly realized that there is always some indeterminacy in our measurements. This is because the act of measurement itself can define and change that which is being measured.

▪ Because of this, the experimenter may always be part of the experiment, and all our "objective" facts are, in fact, potentially flawed (with ESP making it impossible to ever have a truly "blind" experiment). This insight led to the idea of a paradigm based on nonlocality. And while not all physicists agree, the new paradigm that is emerging is one in which the universe is a single whole, within which every part is connected on some level to every other part.

▪ This new paradigm does not "prove" psi exists. However, it is compatible with the possible existence of psi, and may lead to a better understanding the phenomena.

▪ It should be noted that the conflict between these two paradigms is ongoing. Because these belief systems are both widespread and deeply ingrained, topics that touch on these fundamentally different worldviews may give rise to bitter and violent debate, with little or no room for compromise.

▪ The lack of common ground between paradigms means that the question cannot be solved by discussion. Ultimately, the answer will have to be determined by which paradigm does the best job of answering the questions raised by research.

▪ Understanding the role that paradigms play makes it easier for advocates of competing worldviews to agree to disagree with mutual respect. If you wish to read more about this topic, you may wish to pick up a copy of Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

Is Parapsychology is Considered as Pseudoscience?

▪ No Parapsychology is not Pseudoscience.

Pseudoscience, This is what Skeptics, Atheists and Agonists Coined it so For Parapsychology.

▪ The Reason is Parapsychology Mainly Deals with Study of Phenomena Such as ESP, Vague Response, Near-Death Experience, Out Of Body Experience, Mind-matter interaction, Consciousness Studies, Reincarnation, Precognition, Retrocognition etc and These Phenomena Cannot be Completely Explained by Exact Scientific Mechanism and Exact Physical Laws of Science, So Parapsychologist uses Terminologies such as Consciousness, Xenoglossy, Split incarnation etc Which doesn't Exactly look like Scientific Terms.

But Skeptics, Atheists, Agonists etc Don't know that Parapsychology is of what the media often imply, parapsychology is not the study of "anything paranormal" or bizarre. Nor is parapsychology concerned with astrology, UFOs, searching for Bigfoot, the Loch Ness monster, paganism, Satanism, vampires, alchemy, or witchcraft.

▪ Many scientists have viewed parapsychology with great suspicion because the term has come to be associated with a huge variety of mysterious phenomena, fringe topics, and pseudoscience. Parapsychology is also often linked, again inappropriately, with a broad range of "psychic" entertainers, magicians, and so-called "paranormal investigators" or "paranormalists." In addition, some self-proclaimed "psychic practitioners" call themselves parapsychologists, but that is not what we do.

What do parapsychologists study?

▪ Many feel that the strangest, and most interesting, aspect of parapsychological phenomena is that they do not appear to be limited by the known boundaries of space or time. In addition, they blur the sharp distinction usually made between mind and matter. In popular usage, the basic parapsychological phenomena are categorized as follows:

ESP: Extra-sensory perception; a general term for obtaining information about events beyond the reach of the normal senses. This term subsumes telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and presentiment.

Clairvoyance: Sometimes called remote viewing; obtaining information about events at remote locations, beyond the reach of the normal senses.

▪ Precognition: Also called premonition. Obtaining information about future events, where the information could not be inferred through normal means. Many people report dreams that appear to be precognitive.

▪ Presentiment: This is where physiological parameters may change prior to the application of a stimulus, suggestive of the fact that on an unconscious level the person knew what was coming before it occurred (and before it was even randomly chosen).

▪ Telepathy: Direct mind-to-mind communication.

▪ Mind-Matter Interaction: Previously known as psychokinesis or PK; direct mental interaction with physical objects, animate or inanimate.

Anpsi: Psi in animals.

NDE: Near death experience; an experience ▪ reported by those who were revived from nearly dying. Often refers to a core experience that includes feelings of peace, OBE, seeing lights and other phenomena.

▪ OBE: Out-of-body experience; the experience of feeling separated from the body, often accompanied by visual perceptions as though from above the body.

▪ Reincarnation: The belief that we live successive lives, with primarily evidence coming from the apparent recollections of previous lives by very normal children.

▪ Haunting: Recurrent phenomena reported to occur in particular locations that include apparitions, sounds, movement of objects, and other effects.

▪ Place Memory: the apparent ability of a building or location to hold recorded impressions of people and events that transpired in the past.

▪ Poltergeist: Large-scale PK phenomena often attributed to spirits, but which are now thought to be due to a living person or group of people. Although reported in all age groups, the agent is most frequently an adolescent.

▪ Psi: A neutral term for parapsychological phenomena, inclusive of both ESP and mind-matter interaction. Psi, psychic, and psychical are synonyms.

Technical Note: Terms

▪ The above terms are representative of common usage, but parapsychologists usually define psi phenomena in more neutral or operational terms. This is because labels often carry strong but unstated connotations that can lead to misinterpretations.

▪ For example, telepathy is commonly thought of as mind-reading. However, in practice, and certainly in laboratory research, experiences of telepathy rarely involve perception of actual thoughts, and the experience itself often does not logically require communication between two minds, but can also be "explained" as clairvoyance or precognition.

▪ Keep in mind that the names and concepts used to describe psi actually say more about the situations in which the phenomena are observed, than about any fundamental properties of the phenomena themselves.

▪ That two events are classified the same does not mean they are actually the same.

▪ In addition, in scientific practice many of the basic terms used above are accompanied by qualifiers such as "apparent," "putative," and "ostensible."

▪ This is because many claims supposedly involving psi may not be due to psi, but to normal psychological or misinterpreted physical reasons.

Why is parapsychology Very interesting?

▪ Parapsychology is interesting mainly because of the implications. To list a few examples, psi phenomena suggest

(a) that what science knows about the nature of universe is incomplete;

(b) that the presumed capabilities and limitations of human potential have been underestimated;

(c) that fundamental assumptions and philosophical beliefs about the separation of mind and body may be incorrect; and

(d) that religious assumptions about the divine nature of "miracles" may have been mistaken.

▪ As an aside, we should note that many parapsychologists today, including most of the authors of this FAQ, take an empirical, data-oriented approach to psi phenomena, and specifically avoid discussing speculative implications that are not supported by data.

▪ However, some researchers regard the current findings of parapsychology as having a wide variety of important implications, including implications about the spiritual nature of humankind.

▪ Thus, in deference to the broad readership expected of this document, we present in the following Technical Note some of the possible implications of psi, acknowledging that this section is, of course, speculative.

Some Implications of Parapsychology

Physicists tend to be interested in parapsychology because of the implication that we have a gross misunderstanding about space and time and the transmission of energy and information.

Biologists are interested because psi implies the existence of additional, unexplained methods of sensing the world.

Psychologists are interested for what psi implies about the nature of perception and memory.

Philosophers are interested because psi phenomena specifically address many age-old philosophical problems, including the role of the mind in the physical world, and the nature of the objective vs. the subjective.

Theologians and the general public tend to be interested because personal psi experiences are often accompanied by feelings of profound, ineffable meaning. As a result, psi is thought by some to have "spiritual" implications.

▪ From the materialistic perspective, one of the foundations of the current scientific worldview, human consciousness is nothing but an emergent product of the functioning of Brain, Body, and Nervous System (BBNS).

▪ That is, no matter how different mind may seem from solid stuff like bodies, it is generated solely by the electrochemical functioning of the BBNS, and so it is absolutely dependent on it. When the BBNS dies, so does consciousness.

▪ From this perspective, claims of survival of bodily death, or ghosts, or apparitions, must be due to wishful thinking. Furthermore, the limits of material functioning automatically determine the ultimate limits of mental functioning, thus ESP and PK appear to be impossible, given our current understanding about how the world works.

▪ And yet, psi phenomena have occurred in all cultures throughout history, they continue to occur, and some of the reported phenomena have been persuasively verified using scientific methods.

▪ Because psi seems to transcend the assumed limits of material functioning, and therefore the BBNS, some interpret psi as supporting the idea that there is something more to mind than just the BBNS, that there is some sort of "soul," or the like.

▪ This "non-physical" aspect, an aspect that does not seem to be as tightly bounded by space or time as present scientific models require, might survive bodily death. If so, there may be important truths contained in some spiritual ideas and practices. Of course, parapsychology is a very long way from being able to say that "the data shows that X" (insert your favorite religious group here) are specifically right about religious doctrines A, B, and C but dead wrong about dogmas P, Q and R.

▪ We must emphasize that there is a big difference between simply noting that the findings of parapsychology may have implications for spiritual concepts, versus the idea that parapsychologists are driven by some hidden spiritual agenda. Some critics of parapsychology seem to believe that all parapsychologists have hidden religious motives, and that they are really out to prove the existence of the soul.

▪ This is no more true than claiming that all chemists really harbor secret ambitions about alchemy, and thus their real agenda is to transmute mercury into gold. The reasons why serious investigators are drawn to any discipline are as diverse as their backgrounds.

Practical applications of psi

▪ Studies of direct mental interaction with living systems suggest that traditional mental healing techniques, such as prayer, may be based on genuine psi-mediated effects. In the future it may be possible to develop enhanced methods of healing based on these phenomena.

Psi may be involved in Murphy's Law: "If anything can go wrong, it will." That is, modern machines based upon sensitive electronic circuits, such as copiers and computers, may at times directly interact with human intention, and as a result, inexplicably fail at inopportune times.

▪ Of course, the converse may also be true. That is, the possibility exists to repair, or to control sensitive machines solely by mental means. Such technologies would significantly benefit handicapped persons.

▪ Other potential applications include improved methods of making decisions, of locating missing persons or valuables, and of describing events at locations we cannot go to because of distance, time, or accessibility. This includes the possibility of psi-based historians and forecasters.

▪ Highly developed psi abilities may benefit psychotherapy and other forms of counseling. Psi may be used to provide a statistical edge in the financial markets and in locating archaeological treasures.

What are the major research approaches?

▪ As in any multidisciplinary domain, there are many ways of conducting research. The five main methods used in parapsychology are:

▪ Scholarly research, including discussion of philosophical issues and historical surveys.
Analytical research, including statistical analysis of large databases.

▪ Case studies, including in-depth studies of personal psi experiences, field investigations, and comparisons of cross-cultural beliefs and practices related to psi.

▪ Theoretical research, including mathematical, descriptive and phenomenological models of psi.
Experimental research, including laboratory studies of psi effects.

▪ Although all five of these approaches contribute to the field, today the primary source of "hard evidence" in parapsychology is controlled laboratory experiments. By applying the exacting standards of scientific method, researchers over the past six decades have developed an increasingly persuasive database for certain types of psi phenomena.

▪ Several major experimental designs have been developed during this time, and a select few experiments have now been repeated hundreds of times by dozens of researchers, worldwide. Sometimes these experiments are conducted as strict replications, but more often they are conceptually similar experiments that add controls or extend the range of questions addressed.

▪ For a thorough review of how we know that psi experiments are replicable, see The Conscious Universe or Entangled Minds, both books by Dr. Dean Radin.

What are the major psi experiments?

▪ Many people assume that psi experimenters today still use ESP cards. This is a deck of 25 cards, with five repetitions of five cards showing symbols of a square, circle, wavy line, cross, or star. Such cards were developed and used extensively in early psi experiments primarily by J.B. Rhine and his colleagues from the 1930s through the 1960s.

▪ ESP cards provided persuasive evidence for ESP, but today they are rarely used. Four of the most prolific and persuasive of the current experiments are the following:
PK on Random Number Generators

▪ The advent of electronic and computer technologies has allowed researchers to develop highly automated experiments studying the interaction between mind and matter. In one such experiment, a Random Number Generator (RNG) based on electronic or radioactive noise produces a data stream that is recorded and analysed by computer software.

▪ In the typical RNG experiment, a subject attempts mentally to affect the distribution of the random numbers, usually in an experimental design that is functionally equivalent to getting more heads than tails while flipping a coin.

▪ Of course the electronic, computerized experiment has many advantages over earlier research using, e.g. tossed coins or dice. In the RNG experiment, great flexibility is combined with careful scientific control and a high rate of data acquisition.
▪ A meta-analysis of the database, published in 1989, examined 800 experiments by more than 60 researchers over the preceding 30 years. The effect size was found to be very normal, but remarkably consistent, resulting in an overall statistical deviation of approximately 15 standard errors from a chance effect.

▪ The probability that the observed effect was actually zero (i.e., no psi) was less than one part in a trillion, verifying that human consciousness can indeed affect the behaviour of a random physical system. Furthermore, while experimental quality had significantly increased over time, this was uncorrelated with the effect size, in contradiction to a frequent, but apparently unfounded sceptical criticism.

PK on living systems

▪ PK on living systems has also been called bio-Pk, and more recently some researchers refer to it as Direct Mental Interactions with Living Systems (DMILS). The ability to monitor internal functions of the body, including nervous system activity using EEG and biofeedback technologies, has provided an opportunity to ask whether biological systems may also be affected by intention in a manner similar to PK on RNGs.

▪ A DMILS experiment that has been particularly successful is one that looks at the commonly reported feeling of being stared at. The starer and the staree are isolated in different locations, and the starer is periodically asked to simply gaze at the staree via closed circuit video links.

▪ Meanwhile the staree's nervous system activity is automatically and continuously monitored. The cumulative database on this and similar DMILS experiments provides strong evidence that one person's attention directed towards a remote, isolated person, can significantly activate or calm that person's nervous system, according to the instructions given to the starer.

ESP in the ganzfeld

▪ One theory about how perceptual psi works is that the psi signals are often present in the brain, but they are difficult to attend to because of the noise of normal sensory input.

▪ The ganzfeld (whole field) technique was developed to quiet this external noise by providing a mild, unpatterned sensory field to mask the noise of the outside world.

▪ In the typical ganzfeld experiment, the telepathic sender and receiver are isolated, the receiver is put into the ganzfeld state, and the sender is shown a video clip or still picture and asked to mentally send that image to the receiver.
▪ The receiver, while in the ganzfeld, is asked to report continuously aloud all mental processes, including images, thoughts, feelings. At the end of the sending period, typically about 20 to 40 minutes in length, the receiver is taken out of the ganzfeld, and shown four images or videos, one of which is the true target and three are non-target decoys.

▪ The receiver attempts to select the true target, using perceptions experienced during the ganzfeld state as clues to what the mentally 'sent' image might have been. With no telepathy, chance expectation allows us to predict that the correct target would be selected about I in 4 times, for a 25 percent hit rate.

▪ After scores of such experiments, presently totalling about 700 individual sessions conducted by about two dozen investigators, world-wide, the results show that the target image is selected on average 34 percent of the time. This is a highly significant result, suggesting that telepathy, at least as operationally defined in this experiment, exists.

Remote viewing

▪ The ganzfeld technique indicates that information can be exchanged mentally after the receiver is placed in an altered state of consciousness (the ganzfeld). The remote viewing experiment, in one of its many forms, investigates whether information can be gained without requiring a special altered state, and without a sender.

▪ For example, in one type of remote viewing experiment, a pool of several hundred photographs is created. One of them is randomly selected by a third party to be the target, and it is set aside in a remote location. The experimental participant then attempts to sketch or otherwise describe that remote target photo. This is repeated for a total of say, seven different targets. Many ways of evaluating the results of this test have been developed, including some highly sophisticated methods.

▪ One common (and easy) method is to take the group of seven target photos and responses, shuffle each of them, and then ask independent judges to rank order or match the correct targets with the participants' actual responses. If there were real transfer of information, the responses should correspond more closely to the correct targets than to the mismatched targets.
Several thousand such trials have been conducted by dozens of investigators over the past 25 years, involving hundreds of participants.

▪ The cumulative database strongly indicates that information about remote photos, actual scenes, and events can be perceived. Some of these experiments have also been used successfully to study precognition by having a participant describe a photo that would be randomly selected in the future.

What are common criticisms and responses about parapsychology?

▪ Constructive criticism is essential in science and is welcomed by the majority of active psi researchers. Strong scepticism is expected, and many parapsychologists are far more sceptical about psi than most 'outside' scientists realize.

▪ However, it is not generally appreciated that some of the more vocal criticisms about psi are actually 'pseudo-criticisms.' That is, the more barbed, belligerent criticisms occasionally asserted by some sceptics are often issued from such strongly held, prejudicial positions that the criticisms are not offered as constructive suggestions, but as authoritarian proofs of the impossibility of psi.

▪ It is commonly supposed by non-scientists that sceptical debates over the merits of psi research follow the standards of scholarly discussions. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. Disparaging rhetoric and ad hominem attacks arise too often in debates about psi.

▪ The social science of parapsychology, and the way that science treats anomalies in general, is a fascinating topic that starkly illuminates the very human side of how science really works. A more complete description of this topic is beyond the scope of this document.

▪ Apparently successful experimental results are actually due to sloppy procedures, poorly trained researchers, methodological flaws, selective reporting, and statistics problems. There is therefore not a shred of scientific evidence for psi phenomena.

▪ These issues have been addressed in detail by meta-analytic reviews of the experimental literature. The results unambiguously demonstrate that successful experiments cannot be explained away by these criticisms. In fact, research by Harvard University specialists in scientific methods showed that the best experimental psi research today is not only conducted according to proper scientific standards, but usually adheres to more rigorous protocols that are found in contemporary research in both the social and physical sciences.

▪ In addition, over the years there have been a number of very effective rebuttals of criticisms of individual studies, and within the past decade, experimental procedures have been developed that address virtually all methodological criticisms, even the possibility of fraud and collusion, by including sceptics in the experimental procedures.

▪ Psi phenomena violate basic limiting principles of science, and are therefore impossible.

▪ Twenty years ago, this criticism was a fairly common retort to claims of psi phenomena. Today, with advancements in many scientific disciplines, the scientific worldview is rapidly changing, and the basic limiting principles are constantly being redefined.

▪ In addition, the substantial empirical database in parapsychology now presents anomalies that simply won't go away, thus this criticism is no longer persuasive and is slowly disappearing. Given the rate of change in science today, assigning psi to the realm of the impossible now seems imprudent at best, foolish at worst.

Parapsychology does not have a 'repeatable' experiment.

When many people talk about a repeatable psi experiment, they usually have in mind an experiment like those conducted in elementary physics classes to demonstrate the acceleration of gravity, or simple chemical reactions. In such experiments, where there are relatively few, well-known and well-controllable variables, the experiments can be performed by practically anyone, anytime, and they will work.

▪ But insisting on this level of repeatability is inappropriate for parapsychology, or for that matter, for most social or behavioral science experiments. Psi experiments usually involve many variables, some of which are poorly understood and difficult or impossible to control directly. Under these circumstances, scientists use statistical arguments to demonstrate 'repeatability' instead of the common, but restrictive view that,' if it's real, I should be able to do it whenever I want'.

▪ Under the assumption that there is no such thing as psi, we would expect that about 5 percent of well-conducted psi experiments would be declared 'successful' (i.e., statistically significant) by pure chance. But suppose that in a series of 100 actual psi experiments we consistently observed that 20 were successful.

▪ This is extremely unlikely to occur by chance, suggesting that psi was present in some of those studies. However, it also means that in any particular experiment, there is an 80 percent probability of 'failure'.

▪ Thus, if a critic set out to repeat a psi experiments to see if the phenomenon was 'real', and the experiment failed, it would obviously be incorrect to claim on the basis of that single experiment that psi is not real because it is not repeatable.

▪ A widely accepted method of assessing repeatability in experiments is called meta-analysis. This quantitative technique is heavily used in the social, behavioural and medical sciences to integrate research results of numerous independent experiments.

▪ Starting around 1985, meta-analyses have been conducted on numerous types of psi experiments. In many of these analyses, results indicate that the outcomes were not due to chance, or methodological flaws, or selective reporting practices, or any other plausible 'normal' explanations.

▪ What remains is psi, and in several experimental realms, it has clearly been replicated by independent investigators.

Why is parapsychology controversial?

Parapsychology remains controversial today, even with substantial, persuasive, and scientifically palatable results, for three main reasons:

First, the media, and much of the public, confuse parapsychology with sensational, unscientific beliefs and stories about 'the paranormal.' This widespread confusion has led many scientists to dismiss the field instantly as being unworthy of serious study, and thus they are unaware of the existing evidence.

Second, even if someone wanted to study the evidence, much of the persuasive work is published in limited circulation professional journals. These can be found in most large university libraries, but in many cases, scholars must request reprints and technical reports from authors.

▪ This document was produced partially to alleviate the problem, and to provide references (within the Web FAQ) to various resources.

What is the state-of-the-evidence for psi?

▪ During the decade of the 1980s, four US government-sponsored scientific review boards studied the experimental evidence for psi effects. These committees were the Congressional Research Service, the Army Research Institute, the National Research Council, and the Office of Technology Assessment.

▪ The four groups, composed of sceptics and proponents, differed on their final interpretations and recommendations, but all four independently reached the same conclusion: that some classes of parapsychological experiments have provided evidence for anomalous effects that have no plausible normal explanations.

▪ Therefore, in this context, when we say that 'X exists', we mean that the presently available cumulative statistical database for experiments studying, provides strong, scientifically credible evidence for repeatable, anomalous, X-like effects.
Thus, ESP exists, precognition exists, telepathy exists, and PK exists.

▪ ESP is statistically robust, meaning it can be reliably demonstrated through repeated trials, but it tends to be weak when simple geometric symbols are used as targets.

▪ Photographic or video targets often produce effects many times larger, and there is some evidence that ESP on natural locations (as opposed to photos of them), and in natural contexts, may be stronger vet.
Some PK effects have also been shown to exist. When individuals focus their attention on mechanical or electronic devices that fluctuate randomly, the statistics of the fluctuations change in predictable ways.

What is the state-of-the-theory for psi?

▪ Opinions about mechanisms of psi are wide-ranging. Because the field is multidisciplinary, there are physical theories, psychological theories, psychophysical theories, sociological theories, and combinations of theories.

▪ On one end of the spectrum, the 'physicalists' tend to believe that the 'psi sensing capacity' is like any other human sensory system, and as such it will most likely be explained by known principles from biophysics, chemistry, and cognitive science. For these theorists, psi is expected to be accommodated into the existing scientific structure, with perhaps some modifications or extensions.

▪ On the other end of the spectrum, the 'mentalists' assert that reality would not exist if it were not for human consciousness. For these theorists, the nature of the universe is much more effervescent, thus accommodating psi into existing scientific models will require significant modification of science as we know it.

▪ Strong theoretical debates are common in parapsychology in part because spirit, religion, the meaning of life, and other philosophical conundrums commingle with quantum mechanics, probability theory, and neurones.

▪ Some theorists have attempted to link psi phenomena with similar-sounding concepts from quantum mechanics (QM), including non-locality, instantaneous correlations at a distance (i.e., Bell's Theorem) and other anomalies. The QM-psi proposals have sparked long, vigorous debates, so there remains little agreement about the feasibility of QM theories.

Where can I get more information?

▪ The major English-language peer-reviewed journals that publish scientific articles on parapsychological topics include the following: Journal of Parapsychology, European Journal of Parapsychology, Journal of the,American Society of Psychic Research, Journal of the Society of Psychical Research, Journal of Scientific Exploration

▪ Other English-language professional journals that have published parapsychological articles include: Foundations of Physics, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Proceedings of the IEEE, Psychological Bulletin, American Psychologist, Statistical Science, Subtle Energies, Science, Nature.

Are ghosts real?

▪ The prevailing view today is that many of the mysterious physical effects historically attributed to ghosts (disembodied spirits), such as movement of objects, strange sounds, enigmatic odors, and failure of electrical equipment, are actually poltergeist phenomena.

▪ Apparitions that occur without accompanying physical effects are thought to be either normal psychological effects (i.e., hallucinations), or possibly genuine information mediated by psi.


Are poltergeists real?

▪ Poltergeists (from the German, "noisy ghosts") usually manifest as loud sounds, strange electrical effects, and the unexplained movement of objects.

▪ At one time, these phenomena were thought to be due to ghosts, but after decades of investigations by researchers, notably by William G. Roll, the evidence now suggests that poltergeist effects are actually caused by the living.
▪ The MMI itself may be produced by one or more individuals, often (but not always) troubled adolescents.

▪ The term "RSPK," meaning "Recurrent Spontaneous PK," was coined to describe this concept. The events themselves--like all forms of spontaneous MMI--are intrinsically meaningful and can be understood much in the same way as a dream metaphor to explain the underlying psychological issues that triggered the phenomena.

▪ Investigations are therefore performed in the same manner as would a newspaper reporter, looking at the who, what, when, where, and why. Some parapsychologists believe that poltergeist activity are a way of relieving stress through the physical expression of unconscious feelings.

Are there Psi Research Experiments accessible over the net?

Yes. Psi experiments on the World Wide Web are currently running at the Anomalous Cognition Project, University of Amsterdam and the Consciousness Research Laboratory, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Where Are The Active Psi Research Facilities?

▪ Anomalous Cognition Program, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Cognitive Sciences Laboratory, SAIC, Palo Alto, CA USA; Consciousness Research Laboratory, Harry Reid Center, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Hertfordshire, UK; Eotvos Lorand University of Budapest, Hungary; Institute for Parapsychology, Rhine Research Center, Durham, NC, USA; Mind-Matter Unification Project, Cambridge University, UK; Koestler Chair of Parapsychology, University of Edinburgh, Scotland; Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

2. What is Law of Neutralisation of Cause and effect [Law of Karma]?

Karma is a Sanskrit word whose literal meaning is 'Action'. It refers to the law that states “Every action has an equal reaction either immediately or at some point in the future”.

▪ Good or virtuous actions, actions in harmony with dharma, will have good reactions or responses and bad actions, actions against dharma, will have the opposite effect.

Karma means Persons physical and mental actions.

▪ Law of karma is equivalent to Newton's third law of motion
For every action there is equal and opposite reaction”.

▪ If you do good deeds to others it I'll come back to you as good.If you do bad deeds to others it I'll come back to you as bad.

▪ Your Own deeds creates your destiny
Each and every deeds in your life have its own result.

▪ A person cannot escapes from the consequences of his own actions, but he can minimize his consequences.

▪ The law of Karma applies to all Creatures irrespective of religion,age,Gender etc.


▪ “Believing as I do in the theory of rebirth, I live in the hope that if not in this birth, in some other birth I shall be able to hug all humanity in friendly embrace.” – Mohandas K. Gandhi

▪ We have heard a lot about ‘Karma’. ‘Karma’ is a Sanskrit word which means ‘action’. Karma is the process of cause and effect, which is associated with our thoughts, emotions and behaviors. Jesus said, “As you sow, so shall you reap”. This single statement contains the essence of what Karma is.

The Dynamics of Karma

▪ We are all spiritual beings having a human experience and the dynamics of Karma help us to keep learning and progressing through the actions done by us in each lifetime. Therefore, Karma is neither good nor bad. Karma operates on universal laws, which create total justice.

Karma is very impersonal and it applies to everyone without exception at all times. Karma makes us realize that we are all one irrespective of our nationality, religion, race, creed, caste, sex etc. and thereby teaches us oneness.

Karma teaches us take self-responsibility as it makes us feel responsible for our actions in every situation. Karma makes us understand the cause and effect of our actions. Understanding Karma is a major step in our Spiritual Evolution.

Different types of Karma

SANCHITA KARMA :- This is the sum total of the Karma accumulated from all the lifetimes.

PRARABDHA KARMA :- This is the Karma that is ripened. The effects of this type of Karma will be felt in this lifetime and in current situations.

AGAMI KARMA or KRIYAMANA KARMA :-  This is the recently added Karma resulting from present actions. This kind of Karma, which is added recently, affects the future.

Karma is not Punishment

▪ It is very important for us to understand that Karma is not a system of punishment put in place by a higher authority. The common misconception is that the laws of Karma operate in such a manner as to punish us for our so-called ‘wrong doings’.

▪ The punishment is always self-inflicted from the karmic point of view. Strong Identification with patterns of guilt leads to a need to punish oneself, and therefore the punishment is invariably self-inflicted punishment.

“13 important Postulates According to Law of Karma”.


Reincarnation or metempsychosis, is the transfer, or migration, of individual Consciousness from one body to another body after Death.

Reincarnation is the concept that Souls or Mind or Consciousness or Something else  are
continuously reborn in different bodies at different times and places.

▪ The word "Reincarnation" derives from Latin, literally meaning, "entering the flesh again". The Greek equivalent metempsychosis (μετεμψύχωσις) derives from meta (change) and empsykhoun (to put a soul into),a term attributed to Pythagoras.

▪ An alternate term is transmigration implying migration from one life (body) to another.

▪ Reincarnation refers to the belief that an aspect of every human being (or all living beings in some cultures) continues to exist after death, this aspect may be the soul or mind or consciousness or something transcendent which is reborn in an interconnected cycle of existence.

Reincarnation and Karma

▪ Most of us believe that our individual characters are formed from birth in this present life. We therefore assume that our psychological makeup is molded from parental and social conditioning as well as our genetic inheritance.

▪ Factors like complexes, patterning, personal myths, scripts and family of origin etc. are believed to influence our characters. These have been used to explain how our psyche has been affected by our childhood experiences and/or our genetic inheritance. Modern psychology is predominantly based on this model.

▪ What this model fails to provide suitable explanations for are the instances wherein many people are found to possess special gifts and character traits that cannot be due to their family history or genetic inheritance.

▪ It also cannot explain why two people with identical family history and genetic inheritance often have vastly varying and sometimes diametrically opposite character traits and behavior. This model is therefore incomplete in its understanding of the human psyche. This is the reason why it has had an insignificant success rate when it comes to treating most psychological disorders and ailments.

▪ Any search for a fully integrated model, which can provide the answers to all the questions that remain unanswered using the present model, leads us to the study of reincarnation.

▪ Reincarnation is the missing link, which helps us to complete our understanding. Once we realize that we are eternal beings who have lived many lifetimes before this one, we can easily understand that our psyche represents the sum total of all experiences of all our lifetimes including the present one.

▪ This explains how our character, situations and conditions in the present life have their roots in our past lives. Past life activities, past life habits, past life patterns, traumatic experiences in the past lives, emotionally charged events from past lives and many more past life experiences all together make up our present self and character structure.

▪ The main reason for reincarnating is to learn lessons. Reincarnation and Karma are thus interrelated. However, this does not apply to those who choose to reincarnate to teach others and help them to grow spiritually. Before we reincarnate, we choose the circumstances, parents, social conditions and situations into which we are born so as to give us the ideal conditions for learning the lessons that we have set out to learn in this lifetime. Hence current family genetics and psychological environments are not mainly responsible for our psychological makeup.

▪They are only the vehicles for the expression of the soul and serve to bring about the interplay of factors required for the natural unfolding of the karmic drama.

Does Soul Really exists, If so Then what is Soul? Where it is came from?
Where it will go after Death?

▪ Is Reincarnation (Rebirth) Real?Can it be Scientifically proved? if so what is its Mechanism?

What does Parapsychology about Rebirth?

These are the Questions which have haunted Humanity from Long time, Questions that have Remained Unanswered.

Let We Try to Find Answer to these Questions in a Scientific Way.


This Research is Done by MBBS Students along with help of Psychologist, Parapsychologists, Regression Specialists.


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