CHAPTER NO :- 6 》ARCHAEOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL, LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS 》Part :- 4 》Moses in bible is a mythical character









Here are the reasons the bible is wrong about Moses:
  1. The Impossibility of Moses Age.
  2. Moses is presented as having written the Torah. He did not.
  3. Moses is presented as revered; he should be presented as vilified.
* Put the word “allegedly” in front of every reference to Moses. Moses didn’t even exist.

Evidence For The Non-Existence of Moses

The Impossibility of Moses Age

The Biblical genealogy of Moses indicates that Moses was in Egypt for 259 years but then the Bible also states he was 80 when he began the Exodus.
The bible gives hard numbers for certain milestones related to Moses. Connecting the milestones in a timeline leads to an inconsistency with respect to the age of Moses that cannot be explained by appeal to divine providence. Working backwards from the known date of the Exodus, 1447 BCE, when, according to the Bible,  Moses was 80, we find a 259 year gap between the time Moses is born and the time he leaves Egypt!

DATE 
(bce)       EVENT
1876     430 years before the Exodus, Jacob arrives in Egypt with his son Levi
Exodus 1:1 “Now these are the names of the children of Israel, which came into Egypt; every man and his household came with Jacob.
Exodus 1:2 “Reuben, Simeon, Levi and Judah,”
:
Exodus 1:5 “And all the souls that came out of the loins of Jacob were seventy souls: for Joseph was in Egypt already.”
1846     Levi fathers Kohath at age 30
1816     Kohath fathers Amram at age 30.
1786     Amram fathers Moses at age 30; therefore…
1786     Moses birth date using the Bible’s genealogy
Note that Moses was born out of an incestuous relationship; his father married his aunt, Jochebed.
Exodus 2:1 “And there went a man of the house of Levi (that would be Amram), and took to wife a daughter of Levi (i.e. his father’s sister Jocebed).
Exodus 2:2 “And the woman conceived, and bare a son (that would be Moses): and when she saw him that he was a goodly child, she hid him three months.”
:
:              259 years unaccounted for in the genealogy of Moses
:
1527      Moses birth date if he was 80 at the time of the Exodus as the Bible says he was.
1447      Jews begin their 40 year Exodus from Egypt, Moses is age 80.
1407     Moses dies at age 120, just before the Jews reach the promised land. And Moses was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: Deu 34:7
1407     Jews arrive in Canaan after 40 years of wondering in the Desert.

To summarize the above…

  • Moses in Egypt for 259  years
  • Moses left Egypt at age 80!
One of those Bible inspired “facts” about Moses is wrong. For this reason, among many others, the existence of Moses as well as the veracity of the Exodus story is disputed amongst archaeologists and Egyptologists, with experts in the field of biblical criticism citing logical inconsistencies, new archaeological evidence, historical evidence, and related origin myths in Canaanite culture.
The story of Moses life, as presented in the Bible, could not have happened. The Bible is obviously wrong about Moses.

Wrong About Moses Being The Author of The Torah

According to religious tradition, everything found in the Torah (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) was given by God to Moses at Mount Sinai (See Judaism On-Line). Which trip up to Mt Sinai is not clear but lets just estimate 1400 BCE. There are a number of impossibilities related to Moses being the author.
  1. Written language did not exist in 1400 BCE.In 1400 BCE NOBODY knew how to write Hebrew because there was no written form of Hebrew.  Writing was in it’s infancy. In 1400 BCE, the the writing technique in that part of the world was the cuneiform method, whereby a wedge-shaped stylus was used to press the imprints into soft clay tablets. Cuneiform was still a means of writing as late as the 8th–7th century BCE. The “writing” would have been  Egyptian hieroglyphs.
  2. Moses was most likely illiterate.Where and how did Moses learn to write? In what language did he write? Since Moses was born and raised in Egypt, it seems that he would have spoken Egyptian and “written” Hieroglyphics. But this is unlikely. Only highly ranked officials were ever taught to read and write. It’s doubtful that Moses would have been in that select group.
  3. Writing the entire Torah, in Cuneiform or Hieroglyphs, was impossible.There are just too many Cuneiform or Hieroglyphic characters required to represent all the words in the Torah. The five books of the Torah contain  79,800 Hebrew words. IF, somehow, Moses did write the Torah  in either Cuneiform or Hieroglyphics it would have taken over 5,000,000 characters to represent the books of the Torah. It is impossible for Moses to have listened to God dictate and etched every word in 40 days. How long do you think it would have taken Moses to record these ridiculous Instructions For Constructing the Ark?
    It is impossible for Moses to have listened to God dictate and etched every word in 40 days. How long do you think it would have taken Moses to record these ridiculous Instructions For Constructing the Ark?For example, here is a close-up of some Cuneiform characters that mean “Tribute of Jehu, Son of Omri

    Cuneiform Inscription

    Below is a section of the Cuneiform peace treaty between Hattusa and Ramses II,  1269 BCE.  Note the thickness of the tablet, presumably to prevent it from breaking during transit.
    Cuneiform tablet, Ramses II peace treaty
    How were the thousands of tablets kept in order? The Egyptian numbering system was not as concise as ours. By the time the tablets were loaded in Ox carts (where did they come from) and hauled around the desert for, let’s say, 35 years, the chance that they could ever be put back in order is zero.
  4. There was no way to produce the Torah.
    Now then, upon what did Moses record these words? Writing in wet clay with a stylus was one method of writing in that era*. To make the writing permanent, the clay had to be fired. But Moses didn’t have access to clay, only sand. He didn’t have a kiln to fire the clay into solid tablets that could be transported either. Look at the picture of Mt Sinai below. Where are the trees that would be needed to fuel the kiln? If the (non-existent) clay isn’t fired, it falls apart.Conclusion: there was no way for Moses to have produced anything like the Torah.
    * Writing on papyrus was another method of recording. But, clearly Moses had no papyrus. Making papyrus requires lots of water and Papyrus trees. Moses had neither.
  5. Even if written, there was no way to transport the entire TorahAn educated guess says that each tablet, in order to be manageable, could be no bigger than three feet square and six inches thick (see picture above). The thickness is required to prevent the fired stones from breaking during transit. Let’s allow  300 “words” (remember, it takes a lot more space to express ideas in Cuneiform or Hieroglyphics than it does in English) per tablet. In this case 266 tablets would be required. If each tablet was three square feet , 6 inches thick (see diagram above) the weight of the each tablet would have been 102 pounds.  Total weight of the clay tablets that held the entire Torah… 27,000 pounds, 13 TONS .
    Mount_Sinai_Egypt
    How then, did Moses transport the tablets down the mountain and then transport them all around the desert for 40 years? Imagine the task of transporting 13 tons of stone down this mountain –
  6.  How were these “stone” tablets preserved during the 40 years?
    We don’t have the stones containing words written or dictated by God but somehow we have managed to keep intact the entire texts of the Torah? We have apparently been able to preserve God’s word on how to make Aron’s breastplate:
    And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.” Exodus 28:15
    The tablets survived long enough to be translated. But where are thy now? Tons of writings created by icon Moses and not a one of these holy stones, words from the mouth of God himself, none of them survived? How did they ever maintain, intact, thousands of stone-like tablets of Cuneiform scrawled upon by Moses?. When and by whom and where were they translated?Why don’t we have ANY of them now?
  7. Moses Writes in Past TenseTradition says that Moses wrote all five books of the Torah. But the events described in Numbers, Leviticus and Deuteronomy occurred during the  Exodus and Moses writes about them in the past tense. He even uses third person when he creates Exodus. He never says “I went up the mountain”; he always refers to himself in third person, e.g. “Moses went up the mountain”.  Maybe this is more evidence that the Torah was not written by Moses. Modern scholars place it writing by a committee sometime in the 700s BCE.
  8. Moses Describes his own death.
    But the most convincing proof that Moses did not write the Torah, is the fact that Moses describes his own death.
    Biblical passage needed here.
  9. Scholars know Moses did not write the Torah.
    Read the Documentary Hypothesis to learn who really wrote the books of the Torah. It was written around 700 BCE by multiple authors and then pulled together (poorly) by another guy.


The Documentary Hypothesis, and the identity of the Pentateuch’s authors


History of the Documentary Hypothesis:

Both Judaism and Christianity assumed that the Pentateuch — the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) were written by Moses, as the Bible itself states. However, in recent centuries, alternative authorship has been proposed. The documentary hypothesis is now accepted by essentially all mainline and liberal theologians.
  • 11th Century CE: Isaac ibn Yashush suggested that the list of the Edomite kings in Genesis 36 was added by an unknown person after Moses died. For this assertion, he became known as “Isaac the Blunderer.” 1
  • 15th Century: Bishop Tostatus suggested that certain passages were written by one of the prophets, not by Moses.
  • 16th Century: Andreas van Maes suggested that an editor added additional material to some of Moses’ writings.
  • 17th Century: Thomas Hobbes prepared a collection of passages that seemed to negate Moses’ authorship.
  • 18th Century: Three investigators (Witter, Astruc and Eichhorn) independently concluded that doublets in the Torah were written by two different authors.
    A doublet is a story that is described twice, as in:
    •  the two creation stories in Genesis;
    • two descriptions of the covenant between God and Abraham;
    • two stories about the naming of Isaac;
    • two stories about the renaming of Jacob;
    • two versions of the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20 & Deuteronomy 5);.
    • two accounts of Moses’ striking the rock at Meribah
These doublets appeared to contradict each other. In most cases, one referred to God as Yahweh while the other used the term Elohim.
  • 19th Century: Scholars noticed that there were a few triplets in the Torah. This indicated that a third author was involved. Then, they determined that the book of Deuteronomy was written in a different language style from the remaining 4 books in the Pentateuch. Finally, by the end of the 19th Century, liberal scholars reached a consensus that 4 authors and one redactor (editor) had been actively involved in the writing of the Pentateuch.
  • 20th Century: Academics have continued to refine the Documentary Hypothesis by identifying which verses (and parts of verses) were authored by the various writers. They have also attempted to uncover the names of the authors. In 1943, Pope Pius XII issued an encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu in which he urged academics to study the sources of Biblical texts. Recent archaeological discoveries and new linguistic analysis tools have facilitated the research into the hypothesis.
Belief in the documentary hypothesis was triggered by a number of factors, such as:
  •  Anachronisms, like the list of the Edomite kings;
  • Duplicate and triplicate passages
  • Various passages portrayed God in different ways;
  • The flood story appears to involve the meshing of two separate stories;
  • The belief, centuries ago, by archaeologists and linguists that writing among the ancient Hebrews only developed after the events portrayed in the Pentateuch. Thus, Moses would have been incapable of writing the first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures.
These factors led theologians to the conclusion that the Pentateuch is a hybrid document which was written well after Moses’ death, and much later than the events portrayed. The authors and redactors are unknown, and are commonly referred to as authors J, E, P and D.
As it happens, their belief about Moses being illiterate is probably wrong. Archaeological evidence has since been found which shows that all of the major civilizations surrounding the Hebrews were literate at the apparent time of the Exodus. So one can assume that Moses knew how to read and write.


Writing by various authors, according to the documentary hypothesis:

J: a writer who:
  • focuses on humanity in his/her writing;
  • might possibly have been a woman. His/her writing shows much greater sensitivity towards women than does E;
  • regularly used “JHWH” as God’s name;
  • describes God in anthropomorphic terms: God formed Adam from clay; he walked and talked with Adam and Eve in the garden; he spoke to Moses;
  • lived in the southern kingdom of Judah, during an early period of Israel’s history when they followed a nature/fertility religion. May have been a member of the Judean court;
  • wrote a more or less complete story of the history of the Israelites from a Judean perspective;
  •  J was probably written sometime between 848 BCE (when King Jehoram gained power in Judah) and 722 BCE when the Assyrians destroyed the northern kingdom Israel and took its people into exile. Some scholars date J to the 10th century BCE.

E: a writer who

  •  writes about religious and moralistic concerns;
  • in all probability was a man;
  • consistently used “Elohim” as God’s name;
  • lived in the northern kingdom of Israel;
  • wrote a more or less complete story of the history of the Israelites from the perspective of the northern kingdom, including that version of the Ten Commandments in Exodus 20;
  • probably wrote between 922 and 722 BCE;
  • y have been a priest from Shiloh who viewed Moses as his spiritual ancestor.

D: a writer who:

  • lived after J and E, because he was familiar with later developments in Israel’s history. He lived at a time when the religion of ancient Israel was in its spiritual/ethical stage, about 622 BCE.
  •  wrote almost all of book of Deuteronomy, as well as Joshua, Judges, 1 & 2 Samuel and 1 & 2 Kings. A second writer edited the original text after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians in 587 BCE. He added the last two chapters to 2 Kings and inserted short passages elsewhere to reflect the change in circumstances brought about by the Babylonian attack.
  • lived in Judah – probably in Jerusalem;
  • was probably a Levitical priest – perhaps Jeremiah.

P: a writer who:

  • focused his writings on God;
  • added material from a priestly perspective. It discusses priests’ lives, religious rituals, dates, measurements, chronologies, genealogies, worship and law;
  • was a priest who identified Aaron as his spiritual ancestor;
  • views God as a distant, transcendent deity, less personal than in J and E; sometimes harsh and critical. The words “mercy,” “grace” and “repentance” do not appear in his writing. In contrast, they appear about 70 times in J, E, and D;
  • was displeased with the work of J and E and wrote P as an alternative history;
  •  rejected the concepts of angels, dreams and talking animals that are seen in J & E;
  • believed that only Levites who were descended from Aaron could be priests;
  • lived after J, E and D because he was aware of the books of the Prophets which were unknown to the others. Lived when the country’s religion reached a priestly/legal stage, before the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BCE;
  • patterned his writing after the topics in J and E.

R: a redactor who:

  • was an Aaronid priest and thus definitely a male.
  • joined the writings of J, E, P and D together into the present Pentateuch.
We have prepared a copy of the first ten chapters of Genesis which identifies the passages contributed by J, P and R. Each of the authors’ writings is shown in text of a different color. In the case of the creation stories, the first legend was written by P. Part way through chapter 2, J takes over and describes a second creation story. In the case of the Noachian Flood, from Genesis 6:5 to 8:22, the redactor has taken a different approach. He alternates between short passages from P and J. One can start at Genesis 6:5 and read the contribution of J; it is a complete story. One can then restart at the beginning and read P’s text. Again, P has written a consistent account – one that differs significantly from J.


How the Pentateuch evolved, according to the documentary hypothesis:

Friedman 3 suggests that when the Assyrians conquered the northern kingdom in 722 BCE, many refugees streamed south into Judea, bringing their sacred writing “E” with them. Subsequently, E and J were combined into a single document, referred to as “JE.”

D was written perhaps a century later. It was conveniently “discovered” in the temple by the priest Hilkiah in 622 BCE, shortly after it was written. D was then joined with JE


P was written before the death of King Josiah in 609 BCE, probably during the reign of King Hezekiah. It was written as an alternative to JE.


R combined J, E, P and other documents together into the first four books of the Hebrew Scriptures. To this, he added D’s writings, the book of Deuteronomy, to complete the Pentateuch. By the time that he did the editing, the JE, D and P documents were in wide circulation. Each was supported by various factions. R saw his task as attempting to join these sources together into a more or less cohesive, single document. Friedman suspects that Ezra was the redactor.


Of course, the various writers often incorporated into their writings earlier material obtained from Pagan sources outside of Israel and Judah. Friedman writes:

“From the texts found in Mesopotamia, it is clear that types of literature parallel to what is in the Old Testament existed during the period from the third to the first millennia BC. We know of law codes, creation stories, primeval histories, epic stories and the like from various periods of Mesopotamian history.” 4
One might add a flood story with many parallels to the Noachian flood.

References:

R.E. Friedman, “Who Wrote the Bible?” Harper Collins, San Francisco, CA, (1997). Ibid, Page 79 Ibid, Page 87-88 P.C. Craigie, “The Old Testament: Its Background, Growth & Content,” Welch Publ. Co, Burlington ON Canada, Page 121. Ken Collins, “The Torah in modern scholarship,”at: http://www.kencollins.com/

Moses is presented as revered; he should be presented as vilified.
Moses is the author of atrocious acts throughout the Old Testament but the worst is found here;
And Moses, and Eleazar the priest, and all the princes of the congregation, went forth to meet them without the camp; and Moses was wroth with the officers of the host, with the captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, which came from the battle; and Moses said unto them, Have ye saved all the women alive? behold, these caused the children of Israel, through the counsel of Balaam, to commit trespass against the Lord in the matter of Peor, and there was a plague among the congregation of the Lord. Now, therefore, kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman that hath known a man by lying with him; but all the women-children, that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves. Numbers 31:13-18.
“… keep alive for yourselves”! For what? You know what!

Conclusion

It has been shown beyond a reasonable doubt that Moses is a mythical character, a glue to hold together several stories that collectively make up the Jewish tradition. There is no possible way any of the events attributed to him could have actually happened. The examples listed here are impossible, even with the help of an intervening God.
How can Jews and Christians honor and revere this fictitious monster? How can it get any worse? How is Moses any different than Hitler?
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